Adolf Hitler - História

Adolf Hitler - História

Adolf Hitler

1889- 1945

Ditador Alemão, Assassino em Massa

O ditador alemão Adolf Hitler começou sua carreira como aspirante a artista. Ele não teve sucesso em seus esforços artísticos, no entanto, e acabou se alistando no exército alemão durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial.

Ele foi ferido e recebeu duas Cruzes de Ferro. Em 1919, ele fundou o Partido Nacional Socialista (nazista). Sua tentativa de derrubar o governo da Baviera em 1923 falhou e resultou em uma pena de prisão que lhe deu a oportunidade de articular sua filosofia política em um livro intitulado Mein Kampf ("Minha Luta").

Em 1933, ele assumiu o poder e deu início ao rearmamento imediato da Alemanha. Hitler também instituiu uma série de políticas anti-semitas, que eventualmente levaram à aniquilação de mais de seis milhões de judeus na Europa.

Hitler sozinho liderou a Alemanha na Segunda Guerra Mundial. Até o fim da guerra e o ataque final da Rússia a Berlim, Hitler manteve estrito controle sobre todos os aspectos do exército alemão.

Com a derrota da Alemanha assegurada, Hitler cometeu suicídio em seu bunker.


Adolf Hitler e a árvore genealógica dos anos 39

A árvore genealógica de Adolf Hitler é complicada. Você notará que o sobrenome "Hitler" tinha muitas variações que costumavam ser usadas quase que de forma intercambiável. Algumas das variações comuns foram Hitler, Hiedler, Hüttler, Hytler e Hittler. O pai de Adolf, Alois Schicklgruber, mudou seu nome em 7 de janeiro de 1877 para "Hitler" - a única forma do sobrenome que seu filho usava.

Sua árvore genealógica imediata está repleta de casamentos múltiplos. Na imagem acima, observe cuidadosamente as datas de casamento e de nascimento dos muitos parentes de Hitler. Várias dessas crianças nasceram ilegitimamente ou apenas alguns meses após o casamento. Isso deu origem a muitas disputas, como a questão contestada de se Johann Georg Hiedler era ou não o pai de Alois Schicklgruber (conforme descrito no gráfico acima).


Adolf sua plataforma política, os Vinte e Cinco Pontos,

Adolf Hitler foi responsável por mais males e sofrimentos do que qualquer outro homem na história moderna. Houve muitas ocorrências durante sua vida que desencadearam o resultado do que aconteceria mais tarde na história.

Adolf Hitler nasceu em Braunau Am Inn, Áustria, em 20 de abril de 1889. Quando criança, ele se saiu muito mal nos estudos e não concluiu o ensino médio. Ele era um grande artista e ator.

& # 8216Ele se inscreveu para admissão na Academia de Belas Artes de Viena, mas foi rejeitado por falta de talento. & # 8217 (Andreas Dorpalen, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia) Ele não permitiu que ninguém o impedisse de realizar o que queria realizar. Ele foi o maior orador púbico de sua época.

Eventos posteriores revelam que Hitler era mau e queria criar sua própria cultura e raça específicas. De 1909 a 1913, Hitler viveu nos bairros mais pobres de Viena, movendo-se de um lugar para outro. & # 8216Quando menino, idolatrava os padres e por dois anos considerou seriamente tornar-se padre. & # 8217 (http: // www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/boyhood.htm) Em 1913, ele se mudou para Munique, Alemanha, para evitar o serviço militar no Império Habsburgo, que ele desprezava. Adolf Hitler serviu pela Alemanha na Primeira Guerra Mundial. Ele foi ferido durante a Batalha do Somme e foi hospitalizado. Após sua libertação, ele foi designado para serviço leve em Munique, Alemanha.

Ele ficou chocado com a falta de preocupação e atitude anti-guerra entre os civis alemães. & # 8216Ele culpou os judeus por muito disso e os viu como conspirando para espalhar a agitação e minar o esforço de guerra alemão. Essa ideia de uma conspiração anti-guerra envolvendo judeus se tornaria uma obsessão a se somar a outras noções anti-semitas que ele adquiriu em Viena, levando a um ódio cada vez maior aos judeus. & # 8217 (http://www.historyplace.com /worldwar2/riseofhitler/warone.htm) Depois que a guerra terminou e a Alemanha estava em ruínas, o cabo Adolf Hitler foi obrigado a investigar um pequeno grupo conhecido como Partido dos Trabalhadores Alemães & # 8217 em setembro de 1919, então Hitler compareceu.

Um homem sugeriu que o estado alemão da Baviera se separasse da Alemanha e formasse uma nova nação do sul da Alemanha com a Áustria. Isso enfureceu Hitler e ele deu lições ao homem por quinze minutos ininterruptos. Um dos fundadores sussurrou, & # 8220.

..he & # 8217s tem o dom da palavra. Podemos usá-lo.

& # 8221 Os membros deram as boas-vindas a Hitler em seu grupo em 1919 e Hitler aceitou. Este foi um dos primeiros passos para causar a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Hitler logo se tornou o centro de atração do grupo, atraindo lentamente as pessoas para seu grupo. Ele também foi o principal orador do Partido dos Trabalhadores Alemães & # 8217. Em seus discursos, Hitler falou contra o Tratado de Versalhes e fez uma palestra anti-semita, culpando os judeus pelos problemas da Alemanha. O Partido dos Trabalhadores Alemães & # 8217 desenvolveu sua plataforma política, os Vinte e Cinco Pontos, que incluía a rejeição do Tratado de Versalhes. Ele declarou os Vinte e Cinco Pontos em uma reunião em Munique, onde duas mil pessoas compareceram.

Hitler tornou-se líder do Partido Nazista no início de 1921. No verão de 1920, Hitler escolheu o símbolo, que até hoje é possivelmente o mais famoso da história, a suástica. Hitler mais tarde renomeou seu partido para Partido Nacional Socialista dos Trabalhadores Alemães & # 8217, chamado simplesmente de nazista. Para ganhar mais popularidade para si e para seu partido, ele foi para Berlim. Nessa época, os membros de seu partido consideravam Hitler altamente arrogante, até ditatorial.

Hitler correu de volta a Munique e os rebateu anunciando sua renúncia do Partido em 11 de julho de 1921. Eles perceberam que a perda de Hitler significaria o fim do Partido Nazista. Hitler aproveitou o momento e anunciou que retornaria com a condição de ser nomeado presidente e receber poderes ditatoriais. Os membros restantes do Partido Nazista finalmente recuaram e a demanda de Hitler foi colocada em votação. O resultado foi 543: 1 a favor de Hitler. Em 29 de julho de 1921, Adolf Hitler foi apresentado como Fhrer do Partido Nazista. Em abril de 1921, os Aliados europeus da Primeira Guerra Mundial apresentaram um projeto de lei à Alemanha exigindo o pagamento (US $ 33 bilhões) pelos danos causados ​​na guerra, iniciada pela Alemanha.

A Alemanha caiu em dívidas fatais e eclodiram motins de fome. Em novembro de 1923, os nazistas, com 55.000 seguidores, eram os maiores e mais bem organizados. O Partido Nazista exigia ação. Hitler sabia que precisava agir ou arriscar perder a liderança de seu Partido.

Seu partido desenvolveu um plano. O plano era sequestrar os líderes do governo da Baviera e forçá-los sob a mira de uma arma a aceitar Hitler como seu líder. Às 20h30 do dia 8 de novembro de 1923, tropas da SA sob a direção de Hermann Gring cercaram o local. Esta tentativa de aquisição ficou conhecida como Revolução Nazista. Hitler ordenou que os três mais altos funcionários do governo bávaro fossem para uma sala dos fundos e informou-os que se juntariam a ele na proclamação da revolução nazista e se tornariam parte do novo governo. Os funcionários concordaram relutantemente, mas secretamente não foram sinceros.

Mais tarde, os três escaparam secretamente do prédio. Na manhã seguinte, Hitler e seus nazistas marcharam desesperadamente para Munique e tentaram assumi-la, mas não conseguiram. Hitler foi acusado de traição e foi condenado. Sua pena foi de cinco anos, elegível para liberdade condicional em seis meses. Enquanto estava atrás das grades, ele escreveu o primeiro volume de um livro, Mein Kampf (& # 8220My Struggle & # 8221), delineando suas ideias políticas e raciais em detalhes brutalmente complexos, servindo tanto como um plano para ações futuras quanto como um aviso para o mundo. Em seu livro, Hitler divide os humanos em categorias com base na aparência física, estabelecendo ordens superiores e inferiores, ou tipos de humanos.

No topo, segundo Hitler, está o homem germânico de pele clara, cabelos loiros e olhos azuis. Hitler se refere a esse tipo de pessoa como ariano. Ele afirma que o ariano é a forma suprema do ser humano, ou raça superior. & # 8220A contraparte mais poderosa do ariano é representada pelo judeu. & # 8221 Poucos dias antes do Natal de 1924, Hitler foi libertado da prisão depois de nove meses. Quando Hitler tinha 39 anos, ele se apaixonou por sua sobrinha Geli Raubal (filha de sua meia-irmã), que tinha quase metade da idade de Hitler e # 8217. Eles tiveram uma vida romântica, mas quando o relacionamento estava com problemas, Geli atirou em si mesma e morreu.

Hitler ficou extremamente deprimido. Durante a Grande Depressão, Hitler sabia que o povo estava desesperado e iria ouvi-lo, então ele decidiu se candidatar à presidência. No dia da eleição em 14 de setembro de 1930, os nazistas receberam mais de dezoito por cento do total e, portanto, tiveram direito a 107 cadeiras no Reichstag alemão. Na eleição presidencial realizada em 13 de março de 1932, Hitler obteve trinta por cento dos votos, enquanto Hindenburg obteve quarenta e nove por cento. Hitler se tornou chanceler da Alemanha em 30 de janeiro de 1933. Seu objetivo era acabar com a democracia e estabelecer a ditadura, e quando o presidente Paul von Hindenburg em agosto de 1934, Hitler se tornou o ditador incontestável da Alemanha. Inimigos políticos foram presos aos milhares, presos e torturados.

Hitler assumiu o controle da Áustria e da Tchecoslováquia em 1938-1939 e construiu o poder militar alemão a ponto de estar pronto para arriscar a guerra. A Segunda Guerra Mundial finalmente estourou em 1939, quando Hitler invadiu a Polônia. Hitler liderou muitas vitórias alemãs. Seu maior empreendimento militar de todos foi a invasão da União Soviética, que falhou. Hitler se recusou a recuar, o que o fez perder os países já conquistados.

Adolf Hitler suicidou-se em 3 de abril de 1945, quando as tropas russas já lutavam nas destruídas ruas de Berlim. A luta de sua vida para dominar a Alemanha e o resto da Europa, os assassinatos de milhões de judeus e seu objetivo de se vingar dos vencedores da Primeira Guerra Mundial ficariam profundamente gravados nos livros de história.


Adolf Hitler é ferido em ataque com gás britânico

Entre os alemães feridos no saliente de Ypres, na Bélgica, em 14 de outubro de 1918, está o cabo Adolf Hitler, temporariamente cego por um projétil de gás britânico e evacuado para um hospital militar alemão em Pasewalk, na Pomerânia.

O jovem Hitler foi convocado para o serviço militar austríaco, mas recusado devido à falta de preparo físico. Enquanto vivia em Munique no início da Primeira Guerra Mundial no verão de 1914, ele pediu e recebeu permissão especial para se alistar como soldado alemão. Como membro do 16º Regimento de Infantaria da Reserva da Baviera, Hitler viajou para a França em outubro de 1914. Ele viu uma ação pesada durante a Primeira Batalha de Ypres, ganhando a Cruz de Ferro naquele dezembro por arrastar um camarada ferido para um local seguro.

Ao longo dos dois anos seguintes, Hitler participou de algumas das lutas mais ferozes da guerra, incluindo a Batalha de Neuve Chapelle, a Segunda Batalha de Ypres e a Batalha de Somme. Em 7 de outubro de 1916, perto de Bapaume, França, Hitler foi ferido na perna por uma explosão. Enviado para convalescer perto de Berlim, ele retornou à sua antiga unidade em fevereiro de 1917. De acordo com um camarada, Hans Mend, Hitler foi dado a um discurso sobre o péssimo estado de ânimo e dedicação à causa no front doméstico na Alemanha: & # x201CHe sentou-se no canto da nossa bagunça, segurando a cabeça entre as mãos em profunda contemplação. De repente, ele pularia e, correndo excitado, diria que, apesar de nossos grandes canhões, a vitória nos seria negada, pois os inimigos invisíveis do povo alemão representavam um perigo maior do que o maior canhão do inimigo. & # X201D

Hitler recebeu mais citações por bravura no ano seguinte, incluindo uma Cruz de Ferro de 1ª classe por & # x201C bravura pessoal e mérito geral & # x201D em agosto de 1918 por capturar sozinho um grupo de soldados franceses escondidos em um buraco de granada durante a ofensiva alemã final na Frente Ocidental. O ferimento em outubro, no entanto, pôs fim ao serviço de Hitler na Primeira Guerra Mundial. Ele soube da rendição alemã enquanto se recuperava em Pasewalk. Enfurecido e frustrado com a notícia & # x2014 & # x201DI cambaleou e tropeçou de volta para minha enfermaria e enterrei minha cabeça dolorida entre os cobertores e o travesseiro & # x201D & # x2014Hitler sentiu que ele e seus companheiros soldados haviam sido traídos pelo povo alemão. Em 1941, Hitler, como Führer, revelaria o grau em que sua carreira e seu terrível legado foram moldados pela Primeira Guerra Mundial, escrevendo que & # x201CI trouxe de volta para casa comigo minhas experiências na frente, fora deles construí meu Nacional Socialista comunidade. & # x201D


Adolf Hitler - História

Por Charles Whiting

Adolf Hitler amava crianças. Antes de a guerra consumir todas as suas energias, ele entretinha as crianças em sua casa de férias na “montanha” o tempo todo. Com o passar dos anos, seu fotógrafo da corte, o professor Heinrich Hoffmann, encheu álbuns inteiros com fotos do Mestre e de seus filhos.

Naturalmente, é claro, eles deviam ser loiros e sorrir de forma cativante quando ele pegava suas mãos para passear, abaixava-se para falar com os pequeninos e acariciava seus cabelos louros brilhantes. Embora o Mestre e a maior parte de sua corte admirada fossem de cabelos escuros, o ideal deles era a raça loira ariana.

Ele também amava cães, especialmente pastores alemães. Alguns membros de sua corte afirmavam que ele amava os cães mais do que os seres humanos. Mesmo no auge de seu poder, quando governou praticamente toda a Europa, do Norte da África à Noruega e do Canal da Mancha ao Cáucaso, ele treinou pessoalmente seus próprios cães. O homem mais poderoso do continente aparentemente não achou humilhante ser visto correndo na frente de um de seus filhotes, carregando uma bengala na boca para demonstrar ao cachorro como deveria carregar tal objeto.
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Na verdade, apesar de seu status como um dos quatro homens mais poderosos do mundo, ele permaneceu o simples homem do povo. Ele dormia em uma cama espartana, não muito melhor do que as de seus soldados. Ele vestia uma camisola de algodão branca, usava um penico para suas necessidades durante a noite e, quando estava muito frio na montanha, ele colocava uma touca de dormir antiquada para manter a cabeça aquecida.

Adolf Hitler cumprimenta a família do Ministro dos Armamentos do Reich, Albert Speer, no final de 1942. Dois dos três filhos são os jovens Albert e Hilde Speer.

Ele abominava águas fortes, mas às vezes bebia uma taça de champanhe ou uma cerveja nos dias quentes. Acontecia o mesmo com a comida. Novamente, ele não se deliciava com as comidas ricas e pratos estrangeiros exóticos de que desfrutavam muitos em sua posição elevada. Em vez disso, ele era vegetariano, preferindo os vegetais caseiros cultivados em suas próprias estufas na montanha - cenouras, ervilhas, alho-poró e assim por diante. Mas, se forçado, comia um ensopado feito com os pedaços de carne mais baratos ou uma fatia de presunto cortado direto da perna no estilo camponês.

Uma obsessão pela saúde

Alguns disseram que ele tinha problemas sexuais. Línguas maliciosas afirmavam que ele era inadequado tanto física quanto psicologicamente. Mas ele tinha pelo menos duas amantes conhecidas, e os criados que o espionaram e sua última amante, Eva Braun, na montanha e examinaram sua cama pela manhã depois de terem dormido lá, sempre afirmaram que tinham evidências suficientes dos lençóis para provar o relacionamento era perfeitamente normal.

Aqueles que viram o Mestre nu testemunharam que ele era bastante adequado na região inferior. Quando o Mestre fazia piqueniques na montanha, um de seus maiores prazeres, ele urinava contra as árvores com o resto da comitiva masculina, que estava naturalmente interessado nos dotes físicos do Mestre. Nenhum deles jamais relatou que ele estava carente naquele bairro.

Notou-se, no entanto, que ele se preocupava muito com sua própria saúde - era um tanto hipocondríaco. Ele sofria de tontura, flatulência, dores gástricas e no peito, pústulas cervicais e paralisia restritiva e, ao final, tomava até 60 comprimidos por dia. Ao mesmo tempo, ele também estava muito preocupado com a saúde de seus súditos.

Em uma fotografia divulgada para fins de propaganda, Hitler se prepara para atirar um pedaço de pau durante uma sessão com Muck, um de seus pastores alemães.

O resultado foi que ele instituiu medidas estranhamente contemporâneas. Ele introduziu os registros de câncer, os primeiros a registrar novos casos da doença (incidência e não apenas casos fatais, como era costume em outros países). Pesticidas contendo arsênico, que podem causar câncer, foram proibidos. Naturalmente, fumar era desaprovado, e a Alemanha foi a primeira a introduzir campanhas antifumo.

A ideologia do Mestre promovia dietas com menos açúcar, gordura e carne e menos alimentos enlatados. Por lei, aquele grande alimento básico alemão, o pão, tinha que conter uma porcentagem mínima de farinha de grãos inteiros. Tubos de pasta de dente revestidos de chumbo foram proibidos. Hitler era basicamente vegetariano, assim como seu chefe SS, Heinrich Himmler, que tinha até sua própria horta.

Em 1941, os perigos do fumo eram ensinados nas escolas e 60 cidades estavam proibindo o fumo em seus sistemas de transporte público. Um ano depois, em meio a uma guerra total, o Mestre estava preocupado com as baleias, escrevendo: “O consumo crescente de óleo de baleia está diminuindo a população de baleias”. Quão amigo do ambiente você consegue?

Um homem de contradições extremas

O que se pode fazer com um homem assim, tão moderno em seu pensamento, incorporando de muitas maneiras as características que somos ensinados a admirar em nosso próprio tempo - o vegetariano, que instituiu campanhas contra os perigos da radiação e do fumo (a Alemanha de Hitler teve o primeiro do mundo Instituto de “Pesquisa de Riscos do Tabaco” da Universidade de Jena) que usou seus escritórios estaduais e instalações de pesquisa para proteger o “plasma germinativo” nacional, o precursor de nosso próprio patrimônio genético?

Foi este o mesmo homem que forçou uma grande guerra na Europa, que resultou em cerca de 30 milhões de mortes? Será que esse amante de cachorros e crianças louras poderia realmente instituir uma onda de anti-semitismo em massa, que terminou no Holocausto? Como poderia Hitler, que detestava a caça e criticava seus próprios seguidores, em particular o chefe da Luftwaffe Hermann Göring, por se entregar a atirar em pássaros e matar porcos selvagens, despachar homens, mulheres e crianças aos milhares, e no final às centenas de milhares, para serem liquidados nos fornos de seus campos de concentração?

Hitler se abaixa para cumprimentar um garoto alemão de olhos arregalados usando lederhosen nativo nesta foto de propaganda, que foi amplamente distribuída na Alemanha e no exterior. Observe a aprovação dos adultos sentados ao fundo.

Será que essa modernidade benevolente e voltada para o futuro pode andar de mãos dadas com essa crueldade medieval, quase patológica? No caso de Adolf Hitler, o novo mestre da Alemanha desde 1933, sim. E não é, na realidade, tão difícil de compreender. Hitler, como tantos de sua geração, foi brutalizado por quatro anos nas trincheiras da Primeira Guerra Mundial. Ferido e temporariamente cego naquela guerra, ele foi libertado de um exército alemão derrotado, que tinha sido seu primeiro lar de verdade, para um caótica nova República Alemã. Como tantos outros daquela “geração da frente”, os “restolhos”, como se chamavam, ele se sentiu traído pelos socialistas e pelos plutocratas judeus que ele acreditava que agora comandavam esta nova Alemanha decadente.

Assim, foi enquanto ele absorvia as novas idéias correntes na década de 1920 (e deve-se lembrar que a Alemanha daquela época foi uma precursora da modernidade em praticamente todos os campos), que Hitler e muitos outros caíram na cultura cruel de um Alemanha mais velha. Na época em que Hitler e seus seguidores chegaram ao poder, havia uma espécie de polaridade de dois extremos que muitos estrangeiros acharam intrigante e, em seguida, repelente. Como os guardas nazistas em campos de concentração poderiam dar a alguns dos garotos sob seus cuidados um típico Natal alemão, cheio de todo o seu sentimentalismo e kitsch, e então mandar essas mesmas crianças para os fornos um ou dois dias depois?

The Bourgeois Berghof

Foi um pouco diferente quando Hitler construiu sua casa de férias nos Alpes da Baviera, que mais tarde se tornou o local de sua corte. Haus Wachenfeld, mais tarde chamado de Berghof depois que Hitler o remodelou, era uma mistura bizarra do grandioso - um cenário natural para uma das óperas pomposas de Wagner - e o mundano. Suas grandes janelas proporcionavam vistas panorâmicas de tirar o fôlego dos picos circundantes. Mas sua arquitetura era suburbana da Baviera: toalhas de mesa xadrez, cadeiras de madeira com corações entalhados, pratos de estanho e canecas nas prateleiras. A decoração pode ter sido luxuosa, mas o efeito geral não era palaciano, mas burguês.

No Berghof, onde sua corte era realizada principalmente, o estilo de vida do Führer era igualmente contraditório. Lá ele poderia receber políticos famosos, chefes de estado, até mesmo um ex-rei da Grã-Bretanha, mas entre os assuntos de estado, os dias de Hitler no Berghof eram uma rodada monótona de refeições enfadonhas, filmes bobos de Hollywood (os favoritos do Mestre eram Charles Laughton em A vida privada de Henrique VIII e Gary Cooper em As vidas de um lanceiro de Bengala) e monólogos tediosos de uma hora.

& # 8220 Análise da Personalidade de Adolph Hitler & # 8221

Mas havia outro lado secreto de Adolf Hitler, descoberto em 2003. Em 1943, o general William “Wild Bill” Donovan, chefe do Escritório Americano de Serviços Estratégicos (OSS), o precursor da moderna Agência Central de Inteligência (CIA), encomendou um relatório secreto sobre Hitler. Trinta cópias do relatório compilado pelo Dr. Henry Murray foram encontradas na Universidade Cornell em Ithaca, Nova York, quase 60 anos depois.

O relatório foi intitulado “Análise da Personalidade de Adolph Hitler”. Murray apresenta uma imagem de Hitler diferente da pessoa amável e simples, amante de cães, que ele apresentou ao mundo pré-guerra. Com base na psicanálise e nas declarações de antigos íntimos de Hitler, como "Putzi" Hanfstaengl e Otto Strasser, que fugiram para os Estados Unidos, Murray afirmou que Hitler sofria de neurose, histeria, paranóia, tendências edipianas e esquizofrenia.

Hitler relaxa no terraço de Berchtesgaden
com seu animal de estimação mais famoso, Blondi. O pastor alemão foi posteriormente envenenado durante um teste de potência do cianeto do Führer.

Dois anos antes do suicídio de Hitler, Murray concluiu com incrível previsão: "Há uma poderosa compulsão nele para se sacrificar e toda a Alemanha para a aniquilação vingativa da cultura ocidental, para morrer, arrastando toda a Europa com ele para o abismo."

Murray especulou que Hitler poderia providenciar para que fosse assassinado ou se retiraria para seu bunker e atiraria em si mesmo. A conspiração dos generais alemães para assassinar Hitler em julho de 1944 falhou. No final, Hitler, como é bem sabido, cometeu suicídio em 1945. A tarefa de Murray também era propor formas de "converter os alemães em uma nação amante da paz" após a guerra. Ele não disfarça sua crença de que o povo alemão compartilhava da culpa de Hitler. Ele escreveu: “Este semideus atendeu quase exatamente às necessidades, anseios e sentimentos da maioria dos alemães”.

Adolf Hitler e & # 8220The Mountain People & # 8221

Este era o Mestre, que montou uma espécie de máfia nazista em torno dele na montanha. No devido tempo, ele e eles conquistariam a maior parte da Europa, do Canal da Mancha aos Montes Urais. Seus soldados alcançariam vitórias tremendas, lutando contra os britânicos, os americanos, os russos e várias nações menores. De forma indireta, romperiam os impérios britânico, francês e holandês e iniciariam a Guerra Fria, da qual os Estados Unidos emergiriam como superpotência mundial. Mas essa máfia nazista, “O Povo da Montanha”, como eles se autodenominavam, dominada pelo megalomaníaco Hitler, permaneceu essencialmente um grupo de bajuladores de segunda categoria. Depois que Hitler morreu, seus seguidores desapareceram como se nunca tivessem existido.

O falecido Charles Whiting era ele próprio um veterano da Segunda Guerra Mundial e, subsequentemente, autor de vários livros aclamados sobre o assunto.


Seu guia para Adolf Hitler: fatos importantes sobre o ditador nazista

Ele é uma das figuras mais conhecidas - mas insultadas - da história. Mas quanto você sabe sobre o ditador alemão Adolf Hitler? Aqui está tudo o que você precisa saber sobre o líder nazista, desde sua ascensão ao poder até a verdade sobre sua morte em Berlim em 1945.

Esta competição está encerrada

Publicado: 5 de fevereiro de 2021 às 9h31

Adolf Hitler é uma das figuras mais conhecidas - e desprezadas - da história. Ele foi o principal arquiteto da Segunda Guerra Mundial, após sua ascensão ao poder como líder do Partido Nazista na década de 1920. Suas políticas anti-semitas levaram à morte de mais de seis milhões de judeus durante o Holocausto, cimentando sua reputação como um dos homens mais infames da história.

Aqui está o seu guia para o ditador alemão - desde sua infância crescendo na Áustria até sua ascensão ao poder e eventual morte durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial ...

Hitler: principais fatos

Nascer: Adolf Hitler nasceu em 20 de abril de 1889 em Braunau am Inn, na Áustria.

Faleceu: Hitler morreu por suicídio em um bunker de Berlim, aos 56 anos, em 30 de abril de 1945

Conhecido por: Ser o líder do Partido Nazista e iniciar a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Adolf Hitler substituiu Anton Drexler como presidente do Partido Nazista em julho de 1921, e logo depois adquiriu o título de führer (“líder”). Ele foi chanceler da Alemanha desde 30 de janeiro de 1933, e Führer e chanceler combinados a partir de 2 de agosto de 1934. Sua ascensão ao poder levou à Segunda Guerra Mundial e à morte de mais de seis milhões de judeus no Holocausto.

Família: Adolf Hitler foi o quarto de seis filhos de Alois Hitler (1837–1903) e sua terceira esposa, Klara (1860–1907). Seus irmãos completos são: Gustav, Ida, Otto, Edmund e Paula, mas ele também tinha dois meio-irmãos - Alois Jr e Angela - de casamentos anteriores de seu pai. Alois, que era ilegítimo, levou o nome de sua mãe Schicklgruber por algum tempo, mas em 1876 já havia estabelecido o sobrenome de "Hitler" em sua família. O próprio Adolf Hitler nunca usou outro sobrenome.

Primeira infância: A maior parte da infância de Hitler foi passada em Linz, na Áustria. Ele tinha um relacionamento difícil com seu pai, com muitos de seus argumentos se concentrando na recusa de Hitler em se comportar na escola. No entanto, ele gostava muito de sua mãe, que morreu em 1907.

Educação: Hitler teve uma educação mista e geralmente foi considerado um aluno medíocre por muitos historiadores. Embora seu pai desejasse que seu filho seguisse uma carreira seguindo seus próprios passos, em uma alfândega, Hitler tinha outras idéias. As tensões aumentaram quando Alois enviou Hitler para o Realschule (um tipo de escola secundária) em Linz em setembro de 1900 e Hitler teve um desempenho ruim. Hitler mais tarde sugeriu que este foi um ato intencional em seu nome: ele deliberadamente agiu mal para mostrar a seu pai que deveria ter permissão para realizar seu sonho de se tornar um artista.

A narrativa não se sustenta inteiramente se você considerar que, após a morte de Alois em janeiro de 1903, o desempenho educacional de Hitler se deteriorou ainda mais. Ele passou a estudar em outra escola em Steyr, onde teve que refazer seus exames finais antes de sair, sem qualquer intenção de continuar seus estudos.

Estamos mais fascinados com Hitler do que qualquer outro ditador?

Hitler foi homenageado em inúmeros livros, programas de TV e filmes. Então, por que estamos fascinados com o ditador nazista?

“Em um sentido mais óbvio, a resposta parece clara: Hitler foi o principal autor da guerra mais devastadora e do mais terrível genocídio que o mundo já conheceu”, explica o professor Ian Kershaw - um dos maiores especialistas mundiais no Líder nazista, que acredita que nossa preocupação duradoura com Hitler vai muito além de um interesse convencional por figuras históricas de grande poder e influência.

Hitler era um bom pintor?

Enquanto líderes como Winston Churchill e George W Bush começaram a pintar como um hobby pós-político, um jovem Adolf Hitler pagou as contas como um artista de trabalho de 1910-1914. Ele se concentrou principalmente em cartões-postais e anúncios - e ganhava o suficiente para se sustentar, movendo-se em albergues em Viena.

Ele era, no entanto, tecnicamente medíocre. Ele foi reprovado no exame para a Escola Geral de Pintura da Academia de Belas Artes de Viena, em parte devido à sua luta para capturar a forma humana. Na segunda vez que se candidatou, seus desenhos foram considerados de tão má qualidade que ele nem foi admitido ao vestibular.

Alguns podem argumentar que a arte de Hitler também foi estranhamente pedestre em uma era radical de Picasso e Van Gogh. Como um leitor voraz de história e mitologia, e com uma mente fervilhando de pensamentos políticos, é um tanto surpreendente que esse forasteiro zangado tenha pintado cenas insípidas de cartões postais de edifícios e paisagens.

Se a pintura não fosse seu forte, a verdadeira força de Hitler poderia ser encontrada em suas habilidades de oratória. “Ele era, é claro, um demagogo magistral - a base de seu domínio inicial dentro do Partido Nazista”, explica o professor Kershaw. “Mais do que qualquer outro político alemão contemporâneo, ele falava em uma linguagem que expressava a raiva e o preconceito de seu público.”

Ele também era, observa Kershaw, muito lido: “Sua excelente memória permitiu-lhe recordar informações sobre muitos assuntos. Isso impressionou não apenas aqueles ao seu redor e outros que já eram suscetíveis à sua mensagem. ”

O que Hitler fez durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial?

Embora Adolf Hitler tivesse cerca de 20 anos quando estourou a Primeira Guerra Mundial em 1914, ele inicialmente tentou evitar o recrutamento. Então, quando forçado a se alistar, ele falhou no médico. Ele ainda acabou usando uniforme, juntando-se ao exército bávaro (parte do alemão).

Hitler serviu neste exército na Primeira Batalha de Ypres. De acordo com Hitler, seu regimento de 3.600 foi reduzido para 611 durante a batalha e ele foi um dos apenas 42 sobreviventes de sua companhia de 250 homens. Um de seus papéis era o de corredor de trincheiras. Ele também foi ferido no Somme e foi premiado duas vezes com a Cruz de Ferro por bravura, uma vez por recomendação de um camarada judeu.

Então, na noite de 13-14 de outubro de 1918, o cabo Hitler foi pego em um ataque de gás mostarda pelos britânicos. Ele passou o resto da guerra se recuperando de uma cegueira temporária, sabendo da rendição da Alemanha em um hospital militar, embora haja alguma sugestão de que essa história foi inventada por Hitler e que ele estava de fato sendo tratado de "ambliopia histérica", um psiquiatra desordem conhecida como 'cegueira histérica'. Foi nessa época, Hitler afirmou mais tarde em seu manifesto político Mein Kampf (publicado pela primeira vez em 1925), que “veio-me a ideia de que libertaria a Alemanha, que a tornaria grande”.

Quando Hitler se envolveu com a política pela primeira vez?

Hitler surgiu pela primeira vez no cenário político na cidade alemã de Munique no final de 1919 como orador do Partido dos Trabalhadores Alemães (DAP), de direita. O DAP mudou seu nome para NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) em fevereiro de 1920, antes de Hitler assumir oficialmente o cargo de presidente do partido em julho de 1921. O partido, que Hitler achava que não tinha direção, também era conhecido como "Partido Nazista de Hitler" nessa época. No entanto, o próprio Hitler não era realmente conhecido fora da Baviera até muito mais tarde.

Durante o início da década de 1920, Hitler propositalmente manteve um certo grau de mistério em torno de si mesmo. He refused to let unofficial photographers take his picture, instead opting to employ his own personal photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann, who produced a series of bestselling books of pictures that portrayed the Nazi leader as an aloof intellectual. “They aimed to show Hitler as a man of the people and, at the same time, the political philosopher of genius in lofty isolation, among the mountains that surrounded his Alpine retreat near the town of Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, as he pondered Germany’s future and bore the entire burden of responsibility on his shoulders,” explains Professor Kershaw. The creation of the ‘Hitler mystery’ was a masterful move of PR, utilised at a time when other politicians did not pay too much attention to such tactics.

How did Hitler rise to power?

Hitler’s first official grasp for power took place in November 1923. He and his supporters attempted to seize political power in Munich, as a prelude to a takeover in Berlin. Around 2,000 Nazis took part in the violent daytime coup, which became known as the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch.

What happened during the Beer Hall Putsch?

Hitler led his Nazi movement in a daytime march through central Munich, which was intended as a show of force, aiming at seizing power in Bavaria and then in Berlin a reprise of Mussolini’s March on Rome, which had brought the Fascist leader to power the previous year.

But, after sweeping aside a number of police pickets, Hitler’s marchers finally met their match by the Feldherrnhalle on the Odeonsplatz, where a detachment of Bavarian police refused to back down and fired on the column. In the mêlée, 14 Nazis were killed along with one unlucky waiter nearby, who was caught in the cross-fire. Two other Nazis were killed elsewhere in the city, but Hitler – wrenched to the ground by a dying man beside him and shielded by his loyal bodyguard, Ulrich Graf – escaped with only a dislocated shoulder. Despite its failure, the Putsch would become the founding legend of the Nazi movement.

When the coup collapsed, Hitler was arrested and charged with treason. The subsequent trial was a complex affair – as historian Roger Moorhouse explains: “Hitler probably should have been sent for trial to the constitutional court at Leipzig, but Munich’s political establishment was keen to keep the matter ‘in house’, for fear of giving oxygen to the rumours of official complicity with the Nazis. So, with a tame, sympathetic judge – Georg Neithardt – presiding, the trial opened in the Munich infantry school on 26 February.

“Those hoping for Hitler’s political demise were to be disappointed. He expertly played the court, assisted by Neithardt, and so reached a much wider audience than he had ever reached before. By the end of the trial, he had a national following for the first time, and had emerged as the undisputed leader of the German radical right.”

Hitler served just nine months of his five-year prison sentence at Landsberg Prison. Following his release, he was forbidden from making public speeches but continued speaking to private audiences and gained a reputation as a formidable orator. By the 1930s he had cultivated an elaborate public profile, selling a “novel vision” to his followers and the wider German public. “Hitler was offering national redemption, a ‘new Germany’, a ‘new man’, a ‘new Jerusalem’,” says Moorhouse.

The Nazi party gradually grew in numbers throughout the late 1920s – and by July 1932, they had transformed from a small, revolutionary party to the largest elected party in the Reichstag (German parliament). They did this primarily through the use of effective propaganda, with support from the from the Sturmabteilung (SA), otherwise known as the Brownshirts, a paramilitary wing of the NSDAP.

Rise to dictator

Once Hitler had established himself as a key player in the German political scene of the 1930s, consolidation of his power as a dictator happened rather quickly. He achieved this with a “twin-track approach”, according to historian Richard J Evans.

The first track involved convincing the right-wing government that Hitler should rule Germany by decree. This was agreed by conservatives who were largely motivated by a desire to crush the Communist Party. “In November 1932, the Social Democrats and Communists together had more votes and seats than the Nazis, but they were also deadly enemies of each other and couldn’t get their act together to stop the Nazis. Hitler used legal or quasi-legal powers of the government, particularly the president’s power to rule by decree in a state of emergency,” explains Evans.

Listen: Historian Frank McDonough discusses the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany, covering the period from the start of the Third Reich to the early months of World War Two

On 23 March 1933, the Reichstag was persuaded by Hitler – through a mixture of threats and inducements – to vote for an Enabling Law that meant that the cabinet (Hitler and the ministers) had the power to issue legislation without reference to the president or to the Reichstag, thereby giving them dictatorial powers.

The second track involved “mass, brutal violence” on the streets. During this time, between 100,000–200,000 people were put into concentration camps or ‘roughed up’ and released on condition of not engaging in politics.

Where did Hitler get his ideas?

According to historian Richard J Evans, Hitler drew his political ideas from a variety of sources: “from a version of Social Darwinism that saw society and international relations as a sort of struggle of races for the survival of the fittest from Arthur de Gobineau, a French theorist who invented the pseudoscientific idea of race theory from Russian émigrés from the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, who brought with them the idea that Bolshevism and communism were creations of the Jewish race from a certain amount of what’s called ‘geopolitics’, which was invented by an American.”

Mein Kampf

Hitler wrote his book Mein Kampf (or ‘My Struggle’) during his nine months imprisoned in Landsberg Prison in 1924.

It is a strange book – part Nazi manifesto, part rose-tinted autobiography, with excursions into Hitler’s theories on race, antisemitism, anti-Bolshevism, anti-capitalism, the uses of propaganda and the failings of democracy. It is famously turgid in style, so crammed with Hitler’s verbose musings that one reviewer dubbed it “Sein Krampf” (“His Cramp”).

Understandably, perhaps, sales of Mein Kamf were initially rather sluggish after the book was published in 1925, but they picked up as Hitler’s political stock rose. By 1933, it had sold some 300,000 copies, and would sell some 12 million more in the years that followed, providing Hitler with a handsome personal income, which – among other things – funded his purchase of the Berghof, his residence above Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps.

Sales of the book have continued after his death, and particularly since its copyright expired in the 2015 (which also marked the 70th anniversary of the Hitler’s death).

Why did Hitler hate the Jews?

Anti-Semitism was at the heart of Nazi ideology, but what inspired Hitler’s hatred of the Jews and prompted the creation of a system that ultimately led to the systematic rounding up and killing of some six million people?

Hitler obviously did not invent modern anti-Semitism, which has roots in the Middle Ages. By the 13th century, for example, rules enacted across Europe obliged Jews to wear an identifying badge to distinguish them from non-Jews’. And in medieval Europe specifically, anti-Jewish hostility was exemplified by the concept of ‘the blood libel’, the accusation that Jews were murdering Christian children as part of their Passover rituals.

Although we don’t know how early Hitler formed his opinions of Jewish people, he himself states that he felt anti-Jewish while working as a painter in Vienna – a city with a large Jewish population – before the First World War. “For me this was a time of the greatest spiritual upheaval I have ever had to go through,” he writes in Mein Kampf. “I had ceased to be a weak-kneed cosmopolitan and became an anti-Semite.” Some historians have since suggested that Hitler created this narrative of himself as an early anti-Semite retrospectively – and Mein Kampf should certainly be understood in the context of its purpose as propaganda. Perhaps rather curiously, one of Hitler most loyal patrons while he lived in Vienna as a young artist was a Jew called Samuel Morgenstern.

What is clearer is that Hitler’s anti-Semitism intensified following Germany’s defeat during the First World War, in which he served as an ordinary soldier on the western front and was decorated for bravery. The defeat had come as a shock to many Germans, who believed that they had been on course to win following the Spring Offensive and victory over Russia in 1918. Following the Allied victory, harsh penalties were imposed on Germany including the loss of certain territories and reparations were demanded, through the Treaty of Versailles.

Like many of his contemporaries, Hitler decided that the reason Germany lost the war was the weak will of the Kaiser, who was deposed in 1918. According to Richard J Evans, speaking on the HistoryExtra podcast, “Hitler believed that the Weimar Republic, which succeeded the Kaiser’s Germany, was a Jewish creation, and democracy was something Jewish. These were all complete fantasies. But the effect of the First World War was decisive, including on Hitler’s anti-Semitism and his belief the Jews were to blame for everything bad that had happened.”

Was Hitler Christian?

To read and hear Hitler’s public rhetoric in his early days in politics, it would be easy to think that Adolf Hitler had a connection to Christianity, albeit a warped one. Adolf Hitler had been born to a strongly Catholic mother, after all, and had been baptised. He certainly identified as a Christian in speeches and in his book, Mein Kampf.

But any declarations of religious faith were mere propaganda. Hitler received the sacrament of confirmation only at his mother’s behest, and after leaving his family home never returned to church. So when he called himself a Christian in speeches and Mein Kampf, it was in the name of political expediency, to win over an overwhelmingly Christian Germany.

Once in power, Hitler’s attitude towards the Church hardened. The Nazis pushed his ‘Positive Christianity’ movement, which rejected traditional doctrine and anything deemed ‘too Jewish’ (such as the divinity of Jesus) while espousing their master-race ideology.

What was Hitler’s relationship with Eva Braun?

Eva Braun (1912–1945) was the long-term companion of Adolf Hitler. The pair married on 29 April 1945 – just one day before they both died by suicide.

German historian Heike B Görtemaker notes that Braun was much more than a passive figure in the Nazi regime. “All members of the Berghof circle, including Eva Braun, were not just witnesses, but convinced of the Nazi ideology,” she writes. “Although it cannot be verified that Braun knew about the Holocaust – and all surviving members of Hitler’s inner circle later denied knowledge – Braun, like all others, was at least informed about the persecution of the Jews, depriving them of any civil rights.”

Was Braun in love with Hitler? It is almost impossible to identify her true feelings, says Görtemaker. However Braun’s closest friend, Herta Schneider, “declared in 1949 that Braun had been in love with Hitler”.

Where did Hitler live?

Hitler maintained three residences during the Third Reich: the Old Chancellery in Berlin his Munich apartment and Haus Wachenfeld (later the Berghof), his mountain home on the Obersalzberg. All three were thoroughly renovated in the mid-1930s and facilitated the creation of a new, sophisticated persona for the führer.

“Media depictions of Adolf Hitler at home – reading, walking his dogs and enjoying fine artwork – were used by the Nazi regime to create a favourable public image of the führer,” writes Professor Despina Stratigakos.

How did Hitler die?

During the last months of the Second World War – and as the prospect of losing the war became ever more apparent – Hitler withdrew into his bunker in Berlin. It was “the last station in his flight from reality”, wrote the Führer’s favoured architect, Albert Speer. Hitler continued to deliver orders from the bunker, including one that dictated his body should be incinerated upon the event of his death (he had heard about the treatment of fellow dictator Benito Mussolini’s body, who had been strung up in a public square in Milan).

On 20 April 1945, Hitler’s 56th birthday, the first enemy shell hit Berlin. Soviet troops soon entered the city – and by 30 April 1945, Hitler was dead.

It is generally accepted that Hitler shot himself, although accounts differ as to whether he also bit down on a cyanide capsule. Following his death by suicide, Hitler’s body and that of his long-term mistress Eva Braun, whom he had married a day earlier and who had herself injected cyanide, were removed from the bunker, doused in petrol and set alight.

Rachel Dinning is the digital section editor at HistoryExtra


Adolf Hitler

Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H1216-0500-002 / CC-BY-SA

Adolf Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Once in power, he eliminated all opposition and launched an ambitious program of world domination and elimination of the Jews, paralleling ideas he advanced in his book, Mein Kampf. His 𔄙,000 Year Reich” barely lasted 12 years and he died a broken and defeated man.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Students will learn:

1. Facts about Hitler’s life and the historical events which occurred during that time.

2. Hitler’s view of history, his theory of race, and his political goals.

3. Hitler’s use of anti-Semitism to advance his career and to consolidate power.

4. How a political leader was able to manipulate the political system in a democracy and obtain autocratic power.

CHAPTER CONTENT

Hitler’s Early Life

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, who was described by his housemaid as a “very strict but comfortable” man. Young Adolf was showered with love and affection by his mother.

When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father’s two previous marriages.

Following another family move, Adolf lived for six months across from a large Benedictine monastery. The monastery’s coat of arms’ most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, Adolf’s dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that Adolf’s father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period.

By 1900, Hitler’s talents as an artist surfaced. He did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university preparatory “gymnasium” or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father’s decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there.

Adolf’s father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work.

In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907.

Hitler spent six years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father and an orphan’s pension. Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for the homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists. It was during this period that he developed his prejudices about Jews, his interest in politics, and debating skills. According to John Toland’s biography, Adolf Hitler, two of his closest friends at this time were Jewish, and he admired Jewish art dealers and Jewish operatic performers and producers. However, Vienna was a center of anti-Semitism, and the media’s portrayal of Jews as scapegoats with stereotyped attributes did not escape Hitler’s fascination.

In May 1913, Hitler, seeking to avoid military service, left Vienna for Munich, the capital of Bavaria, following a windfall received from an aunt who was dying. In January, the police came to his door bearing a draft notice from the Austrian government. The document threatened a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving his native land with the intent of evading conscription. Hitler was arrested on the spot and taken to the Austrian Consulate. Upon reporting to Salzburg for duty, he was found “unfit…too weak…and unable to bear arms.”

Hitler’s World War I Service

When World War I was touched off by the assassination by a Serb of the heir to the Austrian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Hitler’s passions against foreigners, particularly Slavs, were inflamed. He was caught up in the patriotism of the time, and submitted a petition to enlist in the Bavarian army.

After less than two months of training, Hitler’s regiment saw its first combat near Ypres, against the British and Belgians. Hitler narrowly escaped death in battle several times, and was eventually awarded two Iron Crosses for bravery. He rose to the rank of lance corporal but no further. In October 1916, he was wounded by an enemy shell and evacuated to a Berlin area hospital. After recovering, and serving a total of four years in the trenches, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918.

Communist-inspired insurrections shook Germany while Hitler was recovering from his injuries. Some Jews were leaders of these abortive revolutions, and this inspired hatred of Jews as well as Communists. On November 9th, the Kaiser abdicated and the Socialists gained control of the government. Anarchy was more the rule in the cities.

Free Corps

The Free Corps was a paramilitary organization composed of vigilante war veterans who banded together to fight the growing Communist insurgency which was taking over Germany. The Free Corps crushed this insurgency. Its members formed the nucleus of the Nazi “brown-shirts” (S.A.) which served as the Nazi party’s army.

Weimar Republic

With the loss of the war, the German monarchy came to an end and a republic was proclaimed. A constitution was written providing for a President with broad political and military power and a parliamentary democracy. A national election was held to elect 423 deputies to the National Assembly. The centrist parties swept to victory. The result was what is known as the Weimar Republic. On June 28, 1919, the German government ratified the Treaty of Versailles. Under the terms of the treaty which ended hostilities in the War, Germany had to pay reparations for all civilian damages caused by the war. Germany also lost her colonies and large portions of German territory. A 30-mile strip on the right bank of the Rhine was demilitarized. Limits were placed on German armaments and military strength. The terms of the treaty were humiliating to most Germans, and condemnation of its terms undermined the government and served as a rallying cry for those who like Hitler believed Germany was ultimately destined for greatness.

German Worker’s Party

Soon after the war, Hitler was recruited to join a military intelligence unit, and was assigned to keep tabs on the German Worker’s Party. At the time, it was comprised of only a handful of members. It was disorganized and had no program, but its members expressed a right-wing doctrine consonant with Hitler’s. He saw this party as a vehicle to reach his political ends. His blossoming hatred of the Jews became part of the organization’s political platform. Hitler built up the party, converting it from a de facto discussion group to an actual political party. Advertising for the party’s meetings appeared in anti-Semitic newspapers. The turning point of Hitler’s mesmerizing oratorical career occurred at one such meeting held on October 16, 1919. Hitler’s emotional delivery of an impromptu speech captivated his audience. Through word of mouth, donations poured into the party’s coffers, and subsequent mass meetings attracted hundreds of Germans eager to hear the young, forceful and hypnotic leader.

With the assistance of party staff, Hitler drafted a party program consisting of twenty-five points. This platform was presented at a public meeting on February 24, 1920, with over 2,000 eager participants. After hecklers were forcibly removed by Hitler supporters armed with rubber truncheons and whips, Hitler electrified the audience with his masterful demagoguery. Jews were the principal target of his diatribe. Among the 25 points were revoking the Versailles Treaty, confiscating war profits, expropriating land without compensation for use by the state, revoking civil rights for Jews, and expelling those Jews who had emigrated into Germany after the war began.

The following day, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were published in the local anti-Semitic newspaper. The false, but alarming accusations reinforced Hitler’s anti-Semitism. Soon after, treatment of the Jews was a major theme of Hitler’s orations, and the increasing scapegoating of the Jews for inflation, political instability, unemployment, and the humiliation in the war, found a willing audience. Jews were tied to “internationalism” by Hitler. The name of the party was changed to the National Socialist German Worker’s party, and the red flag with the swastika was adopted as the party symbol. A local newspaper which appealed to anti-Semites was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Hitler raised funds to purchase it for the party.

In January 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into Germany to settle a reparations dispute. Germans resented this occupation, which also had an adverse effect on the economy. Hitler’s party benefited by the reaction to this development, and exploited it by holding mass protest rallies despite a ban on such rallies by the local police.

The Nazi party began drawing thousands of new members, many of whom were victims of hyper-inflation and found comfort in blaming the Jews for this trouble. The price of an egg, for example, had inflated to 30 million times its original price in just 10 years. Economic upheaval generally breeds political upheaval, and Germany in the 1920s was no exception.

The Munich Putsch

The Bavarian government defied the Weimar Republic, accusing it of being too far left. Hitler endorsed the fall of the Weimar Republic, and declared at a public rally on October 30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin to rid the government of the Communists and the Jews. On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a Munich beer hall and proclaimed a revolution. The following day, he led 2,000 armed “brown-shirts” in an attempt to take over the Bavarian government. This putsch was resisted and put down by the police, after more than a dozen were killed in the fighting. Hitler suffered a broken and dislocated arm in the melee, was arrested, and was imprisoned at Landsberg. He received a five-year sentence.

Mein Kampf

Hitler served only nine months of his five-year term. While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf. It was partly an autobiographical book (although filled with glorified inaccuracies, self-serving half-truths and outright revisionism) which also detailed his views on the future of the German people. There were several targets of the vicious diatribes in the book, such as democrats, Communists, and internationalists. But he reserved the brunt of his vituperation for the Jews, whom he portrayed as responsible for all of the problems and evils of the world, particularly democracy, Communism, and internationalism, as well as Germany’s defeat in the War. Jews were the German nation’s true enemy, he wrote. They had no culture of their own, he asserted, but perverted existing cultures such as Germany’s with their parasitism. As such, they were not a race, but an anti-race.

“[The Jews’] ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest peoples as well as the domination of his racial mishmash through the extirpation of the folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people,” he wrote. On the contrary, the German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs.

Germany could stop the Jews from conquering the world only by eliminating them. By doing so, Germany could also find Lebensraum, living space, without which the superior German culture would decay. This living space, Hitler continued, would come from conquering Russia (which was under the control of Jewish Marxists, he believed) and the Slavic countries. This empire would be launched after democracy was eliminated and a “FÅhrer” called upon to rebuild the German Reich.

A second volume of Mein Kampf was published in 1927. It included a history of the Nazi party to that time and its program, as well as a primer on how to obtain and retain political power, how to use propaganda and terrorism, and how to build a political organization.

While Mein Kampf was crudely written and filled with embarrassing tangents and ramblings, it struck a responsive chord among its target those Germans who believed it was their destiny to dominate the world. The book sold over five million copies by the start of World War II.

Hitler’s Rise to Power

Once released from prison, Hitler decided to seize power constitutionally rather than by force of arms. Using demagogic oratory, Hitler spoke to scores of mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the yoke of Jews and Communists, and to create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years.

Hitler’s Nazi party captured 18% of the popular vote in the 1930 elections. In 1932, Hitler ran for President and won 30% of the vote, forcing the eventual victor, Paul von Hindenburg, into a runoff election. A political deal was made to make Hitler chancellor in exchange for his political support. He was appointed to that office in January 1933.

Upon the death of Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler was the consensus successor. With an improving economy, Hitler claimed credit and consolidated his position as a dictator, having succeeded in eliminating challenges from other political parties and government institutions. The German industrial machine was built up in preparation for war. By 1937, he was comfortable enough to put his master plan, as outlined in Mein Kampf, into effect. Calling his top military aides together at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937, he outlined his plans for world domination. Those who objected to the plan were dismissed.

Hitler Launches the War

Hitler ordered the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Hitler’s army invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, sparking France and England to declare war on Germany. A Blitzkrieg (lightning war) of German tanks and infantry swept through most of Western Europe as nation after nation fell to the German war machine.

In 1941, Hitler ignored a non-aggression pact he had signed with the Soviet Union in August 1939. Several early victories after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, were reversed with crushing defeats at Moscow (December 1941) and Stalingrad (winter, 1942-43). The United States entered the war in December 1941. By 1944, the Allies invaded occupied Europe at Normandy Beach on the French coast, German cities were being destroyed by bombing, and Italy, Germany’s major ally under the leadership of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had fallen.

Hitler’s Last Days

Several attempts were made on Hitler’s life during the war, but none was successful. As the war appeared to be inevitably lost and his hand-picked lieutenants, seeing the futility, defied his orders, he killed himself on April 30, 1945. His long-term mistress and new bride, Eva Braun, joined him in suicide. By that time, one of his chief objectives was achieved with the annihilation of two-thirds of European Jewry.

VOCABULARY

– The absence of government or law in a society.

– A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing. Free Corps – A paramilitary organization of German World War I veterans who organized to oppose Communist insurgency.

– A leader, especially one exercising the absolute power of a tyrant. Hitler’s title as leader of the Nazi party, and Chief of the German state.

– A foreign policy which includes the taking of territory by force or coercion.

Lebensraum (Living Space) – A German term indicating the Germans’ imperialistic designs on Europe. It also refers to the additional territory deemed necessary to the nation for its economic well-being.

– “My Struggle” in German. A book written by Hitler while in prison which became the standard work of Nazi political doctrine.

– The abbreviation for National Socialist German Worker’s Party. The fascist dictatorship under Adolf Hitler in Germany from 1933-1945.

– Describing an organization which operates in the style of an army, but in an unofficial capacity, and often in secret, such as the S.A. Putsch – A revolt or uprising.

– Payments made by a defeated country to the victors to make amends for losses suffered.

– The Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers), also known as the “brown-shirts.” It was the Nazi paramilitary arm under the command of Ernst Rîhm. It was active in the Nazi battle for the streets against members of other German political parties and was notorious for its violent and terroristic methods.

– An ancient symbol in the form of a twisted cross which was adopted by the Nazi party as its logo in the 1920s.

Third Reich – The Third Empire. It refers to Hitler’s name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).

Weimar Republic – The German democratic government from 1919-1934 formed after Germany’s defeat in World War I. Its capital was located in Berlin.

ACTIVITIES

  • Research the early childhood of several left-wing and right-wing dictators. Are there any similarities?
  • Compile a list of demagogues in U.S. history. What issues were they promoting, and to what prejudices did they appeal?
  • Research Hitler’s family tree. How valid are the views of some historians that Hitler had Jewish ancestors who did not pass Hitler’s test for being of “pure Aryan” stock?
  • View a videotape of a speech by Hitler with English subtitles. Would the content of this speech have any relevance today? Follow this speech with an “instant analysis” network TV broadcast. If television had been available and had covered Hitler’s speeches, how different would the coverage have been in Hitler’s Germany compared to that which would occur in the United States today?

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • If Hitler were alive and able to visit your classroom today, what questions would you ask him? How would you think he would have answered these questions?
  • Why did ex-soldiers join the Free Corps?
  • Why was it significant that Hitler and the German Workers’ Party were able to purchase a newspaper?
  • Why was it significant that The Protocols were published in a newspaper?
  • Who owns the various newspapers which are available in your community, including those distributed for free?
  • How influential are newspapers in shaping the opinions of those who read them?

EVALUATION

  1. swastika
  2. fuhrer
  3. Mein Kampf
  4. Demagogue
  5. Lebensraum
  6. putsch
  7. S.A.

2. What was the Third Reich, and what were the first two “Reichs”?

3. What was the Weimar Republic, and how did its type of government differ from what succeeded it under Adolf Hitler?

4 What was the “Free Corps” and what role did it play during the political upheavals in post-World War I Germany?

5. What were the economic conditions in Germany during Hitler’s rise to power?

6. Name three of Hitler’s foreign policy goals, as outlined in Mein Kampf.

7. What did Hitler discuss at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937?

8. What were Hitler’s first three territorial objectives? Describe whether they were taken politically or militarily.

9. How and when did Hitler die, and what was the status of the Third Reich at the time?

10. Describe Hitler’s views about the Jews and how he came to hold these views.


The Führer

Before Adolph Hitler claimed it as his personal title, Führer simply meant “leader” or “guide” in German. It was also used as a military title for commanders who lacked the qualifications to hold permanent command. Since its connotation to Nazi Germany, führer is not used in political context anymore, but may be combined with other words to mean “guide.” For instance, a mountain guide would be called a Bergführer, with “berg” meaning “mountain.”

Führer as Hitler’s Title

Adolph Hitler claimed the word “Führer” as an unique name for himself and started using it when he became chairman of the Nazi Party. It was at the time not uncommon to call party leaders “Führer” but usually the word had an addition to indicate which party the leader belonged to. When adopting it as a single title, Hitler may have been inspired by Austrian politician, Georg von Schonerer who also used the word without a qualification and whose followers also made use of the “Sieg Heil” greeting.

After the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which gave Hitler absolute power for four years, he dissolved the president’s office and made himself the successor of Paul von Hindenburg. This was however in breach of the Enabling Act, and Hitler did not use the title as “president” but called himself “Führer and Chancellor of the Reich.” He would, after that often make use of the title in combination with other political leadership positions he took, for instance ” Germanic Führer” or “Führer and Supreme Commander of the Army”


President and Führer

In 1932, Hitler acquired German citizenship and ran for president, coming in second to von Hindenburg. Later that year, the Nazi party acquired 230 seats in the Reichstag, making them the largest party in Germany. At first, Hitler was refused the office of Chancellor by a president who distrusted him, and a continued snub might have seen Hitler cast out as his support failed. However, factional divisions at the top of government meant that, thanks to conservative politicians believing they could control Hitler, he was appointed chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Hitler moved with great speed to isolate and expel opponents from power, shutting trade unions and removing communists, conservatives, and Jews.

Later that year, Hitler perfectly exploited an act of arson on the Reichstag (which some believe the Nazis helped cause) to begin the creation of a totalitarian state, dominating the March 5 elections thanks to support from nationalist groups. Hitler soon took over the role of president when Hindenburg died and merged the role with that of chancellor to become führer ("leader") of Germany.


The Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler, seated on the left with a thick moustache, was an obscure personality in 1919. (Image: Everett Collection/Shutterstock)

There was absolutely nothing in the background of Adolf Hitler to lead one to suspect that this was a man with any special talents or any particular claim on the public’s attention.

He happened to attend a meeting of the DAP as a young corporal of the German army. The speech in this meeting left a great impression on the young man, and within a short amount of time, he joined the DAP.

Hitler’s Birth and Family

Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 in the town of Braunau am Inn. His father, Alois Hitler, was the illegitimate son of a woman named Schicklgruber, and before Adolf’s birth, he changed his name to Hitler.

It was probably one of the best things that happened to Hitler’s political career, since “Hail Schicklgruber” would not have had quite the same political clout.

There was a good deal of speculation during the Third Reich by enemies of Hitler, and then later, speculation that Alois Schicklgruber’s father was Jewish. But there’s no evidence to substantiate this.

This is a transcript from the video series A History of Hitler’s Empire, 2nd Edition. Watch it now, on Wondrium.

A Deep Bond between Mother and Son

Adolf Hitler’s mother cultivated his interest in art. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Adolf Hitler had a typical sort of Austrian upbringing. His father was a minor bureaucrat in the old Austrian system. He was a distant father who liked to spend most of his time down at the pub enjoying a beer with his fellows.

He would come home—Hitler had a younger sister—but he didn’t spend very much time with the children, certainly not with Adolf.

Hitler formed a very strong attachment to his mother, who was everything his father wasn’t. She was loving and giving, spent time with him, and cultivated his and his sister’s interest in art.

He carried a photograph of his mother with him when he went off to Vienna, when he went in the army, and all the way through the war. The photograph of his mother was still on his desk in the bunker when he committed suicide in 1945.

Hitler and the Loss of His Mother

His mother’s death in 1907 was a great blow to the young Hitler. She had supported him in many ways and she had cultivated his interest in going to the Viennese Academy of Art. Shortly after his mother died he did, in fact, attempt to enroll in the academy.

In a series of competitive examinations, he was not admitted. Probably, he’d never really considered the possibility that his artwork would be turned down at the academy. It’s significant that one of the things the instructors at the academy noted was that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Hitler’s As a Young Artist in Vienna

In Vienna, he adopted the lifestyle of a young artist. He spent most of his days hanging around the cafes in Vienna drinking coffee. Hitler was a teetotaler and a vegetarian.

He sat around there’s no indication that he read in any systematic fashion. His reading seems to have been comprised of pamphlets—political agitation of the sort that was found in Vienna in those pre-World War I days. One of the central themes of Viennese politics in this period was anti-Semitism.

The Milieu of Anti-Semitism and Hitler

The old Austrian Empire was a hotbed of anti-Semitism, with its Polish population, its Czech population, and into the southeast, it had a much larger Jewish presence than in Germany proper.

Certainly, the mayor of Vienna, Karl Lueger, was a major anti-Semite and had organized anti-Semitism in Vienna. Hitler seems to have been quite impressed with him and with this sort of milieu of anti-Semitism.

He developed characteristics there, too, that would be typical of him for the rest of his career: a kind of indolence, this sense of—even though he wasn’t an artist—wanting the lifestyle of one with these bizarre hours, staying up very late, sleeping until noon, and going to the cafes.

Hitler During the Great War

Then in 1914 came the event that would change his life and would have the greatest effect on his political ideas and his future—the outbreak of the Great War.

Hitler wrote Mein Kamph when he was in prison in 1924. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Hitler described in Mein Kampf, the book that he wrote in prison in 1924, of being there in front of the Rathaus in Munich when the declaration of war was read out, and that he was wild with enthusiasm. He said it was the happiest day of his life.

The war would bring Hitler, as he said, the happiest years of his life. For the first time, he felt that he belonged he was committed he was involved in a society of peers. His fellows saw him as something of an oddball.

He didn’t visit the houses of prostitution in France, where he was stationed, as most of them did. He never seemed to receive mail from home, they said. He was a loner, read things—pamphlets and so on.

He was quiet, and would be furious with them for their going off to be with French women of ill repute: he said the nationality was as important as the breach of traditional morality.

Hitler Decides to Join Politics

In August 1918, Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action. He was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job. Then in 1918, he was wounded in a mustard gas attack on Ypres and temporarily blinded. He was sent back to a hospital in northern Germany for recovery.

He was still blinded at this point, and it was there, while he was recovering, that he heard the announcement that Germany had signed an armistice, that the war was over, and that Germany was defeated. He claimed in the writing of Mein Kampf that, then and there, he decided to become a politician.

Common Questions about the Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action in August 1918.

Adolf Hitler didn’t pass the series of competitive examinations at the academy. The instructors at the academy noted that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Adolf Hitler was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job.