Batalha de Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178

Batalha de Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178

Batalha de Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178

A batalha de Gujarat ou Kayadara (1178) foi uma derrota sofrida por Muhammad de Ghur durante sua primeira campanha contra um governante hindu na Índia. A primeira campanha de Maomé foi contra os governantes muçulmanos de Multan em 1175 e terminou em vitória. Em 1178 ele virou para o sul e liderou seu exército de Multan a Uch e depois através do deserto em direção à capital de Gujarat, Anhilwara (moderna Patan).

Gujaray era governado pelo jovem Raja Bhimdev II (governou 1178-1241), um membro da dinastia Solanki (uma das várias dinastias Chalukya), embora a idade do Raja significasse que o exército era comandado por sua mãe Naikidevi. O exército de Maomé havia sofrido muito durante a marcha pelo deserto, e Naikidevi infligiu-lhe uma grande derrota na aldeia de Kayadra (perto do Monte Abu, cerca de sessenta quilômetros a nordeste de Anhilwara). O exército invasor sofreu pesadas baixas durante a batalha e também na retirada de volta pelo deserto para Multan.

Muhammad de Ghur nunca mais voltou a Gujarat. Um exército liderado por Qutb al-din Aibek, seu vice na Índia, invadiu em c.1195-97 e saqueou a capital, mas depois voltou para Delhi. Gujarat não foi anexado pelo Sultanato de Delhi até 1297.


Batalha de Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178 - História

A batalha de Kayadara, Gujarat (1178) foi uma derrota sofrida por Muhammad de Ghor durante sua primeira campanha contra um governante indiano na Índia. Gujarat era governado pelo jovem governante indiano Bhimdev Solanki II (governou de 1178 a 1241), embora a idade do Raja significasse que o exército era comandado por sua mãe Naikidevi. O exército de Maomé sofreu muito durante a marcha através do deserto, e Naikidevi infligiu-lhe uma grande derrota na aldeia de Kayadara (perto do Monte Abu, cerca de sessenta quilômetros ao nordeste de Anhilwara).

Opção correta: B

A batalha de Kayadara, Gujarat (1178) foi uma derrota sofrida por Muhammad de Ghor durante sua primeira campanha contra um governante indiano na Índia. Gujarat era governado pelo jovem governante indiano Bhimdev Solanki II (governou de 1178 a 1241), embora a idade do Raja significasse que o exército era comandado por sua mãe Naikidevi. O exército de Maomé sofreu muito durante a marcha através do deserto, e Naikidevi infligiu-lhe uma grande derrota na aldeia de Kayadara (perto do Monte Abu, cerca de sessenta quilômetros ao nordeste de Anhilwara).

O exército indiano sob o sultanato de Delhi foi fortemente influenciado pelas invasões estrangeiras. Foi com base nessa força militar que Alauddin Khalji repeliu os mongóis duas vezes com sucesso. Seu sucesso militar foi devido à criação de um grande exército permanente recrutado diretamente e pago pelo estado. Ele revogou todas as concessões feitas por sultões anteriores, introduziu o controle de preços cobrindo quase todo o mercado e racionou os grãos.

Opção correta: B

O exército indiano sob o sultanato de Delhi foi fortemente influenciado pelas invasões estrangeiras. Foi com base nessa força militar que Alauddin Khalji repeliu os mongóis duas vezes com sucesso. Seu sucesso militar foi devido à criação de um grande exército permanente recrutado e pago diretamente pelo estado. Ele revogou todas as concessões feitas por sultões anteriores, introduziu o controle de preços cobrindo quase todo o mercado e racionou os grãos.

Ala-ud-din Khilji descreveu a si mesmo como o Segundo Alexandre por conta própria. Ele sonhava em fundar um império mundial, que é retratado nas moedas de sua época.

Opção correta: B

Ala-ud-din Khilji descreveu a si mesmo como o Segundo Alexandre por conta própria. Ele sonhava em fundar um império mundial, que é retratado nas moedas de sua época.

  1. The Panch Mahal
  2. Moti Masjid
  3. Tumba de Salim Chishti
  4. O palácio de mariam

O Moti Masjid em Agra foi construído por Shah Jahan. O outro Moti Masjid é uma grande mesquita de mármore branco construída pelo imperador mogol Aurangzeb no complexo do Forte Vermelho em Delhi, Índia, de 1659-1660.

Opção correta: B

O Moti Masjid em Agra foi construído por Shah Jahan. O outro Moti Masjid é uma grande mesquita de mármore branco construída pelo imperador mogol Aurangzeb no complexo do Forte Vermelho em Delhi, Índia, de 1659-1660.

  1. The Panch Mahal
  2. Moti Masjid
  3. Tumba de Salim Chishti
  4. O palácio de mariam

O Moti Masjid em Agra foi construído por Shah Jahan. O outro Moti Masjid é uma grande mesquita de mármore branco construída pelo imperador mogol Aurangzeb no complexo do Forte Vermelho em Delhi, Índia, de 1659-1660.

Opção correta: B

O Moti Masjid em Agra foi construído por Shah Jahan. O outro Moti Masjid é uma grande mesquita de mármore branco construída pelo imperador mogol Aurangzeb no complexo do Forte Vermelho em Delhi, Índia, de 1659-1660.


Antecedentes da batalha: Fanáticos Ghurids contra Chalukyas em menor número

Depois de se tornar rainha, Naiki Devi cuidou imediatamente da administração e dos assuntos militares do reino. Durante esse tempo, Moh Ghori capturou Multan e já havia estabelecido o império de Ghurid sobre o Afeganistão.

Com base em Multan, o ambicioso Ghori decidiu invadir a Índia em busca de riqueza. Motivado pelas histórias de ataques conduzidos por Moh Ghazni vários anos antes de marchar com um enorme exército para Uch, parte sul da província de Punjab no Paquistão. Também se acredita que o objetivo principal de Moh Ghori era saquear o templo Somnath, como Ghazni fez vários anos antes.

De lá, eles conseguiram cruzar o deserto e começaram a marchar em direção a Anhilwara (capital do Reino Chalukyan). O reino de Chalukyan naquela época consistia em Gujarat e Rajasthan.

Ghori estava bem ciente do fato de que os Chalukyan não tinham um rei e eram vulneráveis ​​a ataques. Ele percebeu que a rainha hindu era fraca e fácil de derrotar, pois tinha um exército muito maior à sua disposição. Mas ele logo se revelaria muito errado.

Enquanto isso, Naiki Devi buscou ajuda de governantes feudatórios vizinhos, ou seja, o governante Jalor Chahamana, Kirtipala, o governante Arbuda Paramara, Dharavarsha, e o governante Naddula Chahamana, Kelhanadeva.

O exército de Chalukyan estava em desvantagem e, para combater isso, Naiki Devi escolheu o terreno acidentado de Gadaraghatta, uma área no sopé do Monte Abu, perto da vila de Kasahrada. Este foi escolhido por ela devido às estreitas passagens nas montanhas que dificultavam o ataque dos invasores com força total e diluíam o ataque.

O exército de Moh Ghori estava cheio de soldados experientes e consistia em nômades das estepes que eram excelentes arqueiros, cavalaria blindada superior e cavalos da estepe da Ásia Central que forneciam velocidade e resistência ao exército de Ghori. Além de ter vantagens técnicas, Moh Ghori e seus soldados também eram motivados pelo zelo religioso. Eles, como todos os outros invasores islâmicos, estavam obcecados em matar infiéis (não muçulmanos) e converter todas as terras não muçulmanas em terras governadas pelo islã.

Se você apoia o que estamos fazendo e gostaria de contribuir para nos ajudar a crescer e alcançar mais índios para ensiná-los mais sobre esses heróis e histórias indígenas históricos esquecidos, por favor, considere doar qualquer quantia. Isso vai nos ajudar a crescer


Dinastia Ghurid

Em 1173 dC, Muhammad Ghori ascendeu ao trono em Ghazni enquanto seu irmão mais velho governava em Ghur. Sendo um governante muito ambicioso, não estava satisfeito apenas com Ghazni e queria expandir seu império para obter mais poder e controle. Ele estava bem ciente das fraquezas políticas, religiosas, sociais e militares da Índia e também da enorme riqueza que a Índia possuía. É pertinente notar que, ao contrário de Mahmud de Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori estava muito interessado em estabelecer um Império permanente na Índia e não apenas em saquear sua riqueza.

Muhammad Ghori (c.1173-1206 CE)

Ele foi o verdadeiro fundador do Império Islâmico na Índia. Houve até sete grandes invasões de Muhammad Ghori contra a Índia, e principalmente ele emergiu como o vencedor. Em c.1175 CE, ele liderou seu primeira expedição contra Multan, que teve grande sucesso. Na mesma campanha, ele capturou Uchch dos Bhatti Rajputs e estabeleceu um forte lá.

Em 1178 dC, ele marchou novamente para conquistar Gujarat, mas o governante Chalukya de Gujarat, Solanki Bhima II, o derrotou no Batalha de Kayadara. Mas essa derrota não desencorajou Muhammad Ghori e ele percebeu a necessidade de criar uma base adequada em Punjab antes de se aventurar na conquista da Índia.

o Batalha de Gujarat ou Kayadara (1178) foi uma derrota sofrida por Muhammad Ghori durante sua primeira campanha contra um governante hindu na Índia. Em 1178 ele virou para o sul e liderou seu exército de Multan a Uch e depois através do deserto em direção à capital de Gujarat, Anhilwara (Patan moderno).

Gujarat era governado pelo jovem Raja Bhimdev II (governado 1178-1241), um membro da dinastia Solanki (uma das várias dinastias Chalukya), embora a idade do Raja significasse que o exército era comandado por seus mãe Naikidevi. O exército de Maomé sofreu muito durante a marcha através do deserto e Naikidevi infligiu uma grande derrota a ele na aldeia de Kayadra (perto do Monte Abu, cerca de sessenta quilômetros a nordeste de Anhilwara). O exército invasor sofreu pesadas baixas durante a batalha e também na retirada de volta pelo deserto para Multan.

Muhammad de Ghur nunca voltou para Gujarat. Um exército liderado por Qutab al-din Aibek, seu vice na Índia, invadiu em c.1195-97 e saqueou a capital, mas depois voltou para Delhi. Gujarat não foi anexado pelo Sultanato de Delhi até 1297.

Primeira batalha de terreno (c.1191 CE)

A posse de Punjab por Ghori e sua tentativa de avançar para o Gangetic Doab o levaram a um conflito direto com um governante Rajput, Prithviraj Chauhan, que já havia invadido muitos pequenos estados em Rajputana, capturou Delhi e queria estender com reivindicações de Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). Na primeira batalha travada em Tarain, o exército de Ghori foi derrotado e ele escapou por pouco da morte. Prithviraj conquistou Bhatinda, mas não fez nenhum esforço para guarnecê-la com eficácia. Isso permitiu a Ghori reunir suas forças e preparar-se para outro avanço na Índia. Ele então lançou uma campanha contra as possessões Ghaznavid no Punjab. Como resultado, ele conquistou Peshawar c.1179, Sindh em c.1182 EC, Punjab e Lahore em 1190 EC.

Segunda Batalha de Terreno (c. 1192 CE)

Esta batalha é considerada um dos pontos de viragem na história da Índia, como Prithviraj Chauhan foi derrotado e Ghori emergiu com sucesso. As forças turcas sob Ghori estavam bem organizadas com cavalaria em movimento rápido. As pesadas forças indianas não eram páreo para a organização, habilidade e velocidade superiores da cavalaria turca. É pertinente notar que a cavalaria turca usou duas tecnologias superiores, a saber, o uso de ferraduras e o uso de estribos de ferro. Um grande número de soldados indianos foi morto. Prithviraj escapa, mas mais tarde é capturado perto de Saraswati.

Ele foi autorizado a governar Ajmer por algum tempo, já que as moedas desse período trazem a lenda “Prithvirajadeva ”de um lado e as palavras “Sri Muhammad Sam”por outro lado. No entanto, logo depois, Prithviraj foi executado sob a acusação de conspiração. O exército turco capturou as fortalezas de Hansi, Saraswati, Samana, Delhi e Ajmer.

Batalha de Chandwar (c. 1194 DC): Ghori derrotou Jaichandra (o governante de Kannauj) da dinastia Gahadavalas. Assim, as batalhas de Tarain e Chandwar lançaram as bases do domínio turco no norte da Índia. Após esta invasão, Qutub-ud-din Aibak foi nomeado vice-rei de Muhammad Ghori. Depois disso, Ghori voltou a Ghazni para realizar suas conquistas nas fronteiras ocidentais, deixando os negócios da Índia nas mãos do general escravo de confiança Qutab-ud-din Aibak, que continuou suas conquistas na Índia.

Revolta de Khokhars (c.1205 CE): Ghori teve que voltar à Índia para esmagar a revolta dos Khokhars. No entanto, em 1206 EC, Ghori foi morto por alguém perto do distrito de Dhamyak de Jhelum (agora no Paquistão) enquanto voltava para Ghazni. Este reinado da Índia passou para Aibak, que foi a fundação da Slave Dynasty.


Naikidevi: a rainha que derrotou Muhammad Ghori

É bem sabido que Muhammad Ghori derrotou Prithviraj Chauhan na 2ª Batalha de Tarain em 1192 e lançou as bases do Sultanato de Delhi. O que não é tão conhecido, no entanto, é o fato de que 14 anos antes de ganhar esta batalha, ele foi derrotado por uma Rainha de Gujarat nascida em Goa - Naikidevi! Embora pouco se saiba sobre Naikidevi, não temos nem mesmo uma imagem de como ela era & # 8211 aqui está o que sabemos.

Muhammad Ghori foi derrotado por uma Rainha de Gujarat nascida em Goa, Naikidevi

Naikidevi era viúva de um rei Solanki (a dinastia também é conhecida como Chalukyas de Gujarat) Rei Ajayapala que governou por um curto período de 4 anos a partir de 1171. Ela era filha do governante Kadamba Mahamandalesvara Permadi de Goa e depois do morte de seu marido, Naikidevi serviu como Rainha Regente porque seu filho Mularaja II era apenas uma criança.

Foi durante sua curta regência que a Rainha fez história. Naikidevi é lembrada como a mulher que derrotou e mandou de volta os exércitos invasores de Muhammad Ghori em 1178 EC. Esta vitória é narrada por cronistas hindus e muçulmanos locais.

O poeta da corte Gujarati Someshwara, que serviu na corte dos últimos reis Solanki, menciona que o jovem rei Mularaja (filho de Naikidevi) derrotou um exército de mlechhas (Invasores Ghori). No entanto, a descrição mais exata de Naikidevi derrotando o exército de Muhammad Ghori vem dos trabalhos do estudioso Jain do 14º EC, Merutunga. Em seu trabalho, Prabandha Chintamani ele menciona como Naikidevi, a Rainha e mãe de Mularaja II, lutou contra os exércitos dos mleccha rei em Gadararaghatta ou Kyara perto do sopé do Monte Abu.

Naikidevi, a Rainha e mãe de Mularaja II, lutou contra os exércitos do rei mleccha perto do sopé do Monte Abu.

Também há referências à derrota de Muhammad Ghori em seu reino. O cronista persa do século 13 Minhaj-i-Siraj de Ghor, que mais tarde serviu como cronista para a dinastia dos escravos de Delhi, menciona que Muhammad Ghori marchou em direção a Nahrwala (a capital de Solanki, Anhilwara) via Uchchha e Multan. O ‘Rae de Nahrwala’ (o rei Solanki) era jovem, mas comandava um enorme exército com elefantes. Na batalha que se seguiu, "o exército do Islã foi derrotado e derrotado", e o governante invasor teve que retornar sem qualquer realização.

Infelizmente, é aqui que termina a história de Naikidevi. Como muitas das grandes mulheres da história, ela apenas encontra uma menção passageira e se perde nas páginas do tempo!

Cornelia Sorabji foi a primeira mulher indiana a se formar na Bombay University & Oxford. Ela lutou contra o sistema para se tornar uma advogada enfrentando obstáculos inimagináveis. Aqui está sua história, de coragem e coragem contra todas as probabilidades!

Você sabia que uma mulher de Gujarat foi responsável por forçar as Nações Unidas a tornar as linhas iniciais da Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos mais neutras em termos de gênero? Ela quebrou as barreiras de casta para se casar com o homem que amava e também ajudou a estruturar a Constituição da Índia. Leia tudo sobre um herói esquecido chamado Hansa Mehta

Veja a história de Umabai Kundapur, um herói anônimo da luta pela liberdade da Índia, que evitou os holofotes e preferiu o anonimato como ‘Desh Sevika’.


Chegue ao poder de Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori

Quando o sultão Ghias-ud-din ascendeu ao trono de Ghor, ele transferiu para seu irmão Muiz-ud-din o governo da cidade de Takinabad, a maior cidade de Garmsir. Os historiadores dizem que os irmãos mantinham uma espécie de governo conjunto. De Takinabad, Muiz-ud-din começou a fazer incursões contínuas a Ghazni, que estava então sob o controle dos turcos Ghuzz. Finalmente, em 1173, quando Ghias-ud-din conquistou Ghazni, ele nomeou Muiz-ud-din seu vice-rei em Ghazni e, assim, começou a jornada de Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori também conhecido como Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Bin Sam (1173 -1206). Ghori sucedeu oficialmente a seu irmão em sua morte em 1203. [3]


Morte de Prithviraj Chauhan:

Naquela época, Chand Bardai conta o lugar do trono de Muhammad Ghori na forma de poesia para Prithviraj Chauhan.

Chaar baaj, chouvis Gaj, Angul Ashta Pramaan, Ta Upar Sultan hai mat Chuke Chauhan.

No segundo momento, depois de ouvir esse poema, o sultão Muhammad Ghori foi morto por uma flecha de Prithviraj Chauhan. Então, houve uma bagunça no tribunal. Prithviraj e Chanda Bardai mataram o self tema com uma adaga e sacrificaram suas vidas conforme planejado.

Desta forma, nosso herói Prithviraj Chauhan foi aliviado de sua agonia severa pelo plano do poeta Chand Bardai. Em segundo lugar, o sultão Muhammad Ghori não teve o prazer de vencer a guerra.


Os 10 melhores reis Rajput da Índia | História da Índia

Neste artigo, compilamos uma lista dos dez principais reis Rajput que governaram o norte da Índia. Eles são: 1. Rei Bhoja (1000-Quase 1055 DC) 2. Prithviraja III Alias ​​Rai Pithora (Quase 1178-1192 DC) 3. Vijayasena (1095-1158 DC) 4. Dharmapala (770-810 DC) 5. Devapala ( 810-850 DC) 6. Mahipala I (988-1120 DC) 7. Mahipala (912-944 DC) 8. Yaso Varman (Quase 690-740 DC) e alguns mais.

Rajput King # 1. King Bhoja (1000-Quase 1055 DC):

Bhoja foi o maior governante dos Parmaras que elevou o poder de sua dinastia a um posto imperial. Ele foi considerado grande tanto como estudioso quanto como comandante de sucesso. Ele lutou muitas batalhas, embora não conseguisse conquistar qualquer território, exceto Konkan. Ele se aliou ao rei Kalachuri Gangeyadeva e ao rei Chola Rajendra e invadiu o reino de Chalukya Jayasinha, atacou Malwa e saqueou Dhara, Ujjain e Mandu.

A tentativa de Bhoja de conquistar Gwalior foi frustrada por Kirttiraja. Sua tentativa de afirmar a supremacia sobre Bundelkhand foi frustrada pelo rei Chandela, Vidyadhara. Ele também não conseguiu obter sucesso contra os Rashtrakutas de Kanyakubja e os Chauhanas de Nadol. No entanto, o governante Chauhana de Sakambhari se rendeu a ele. Bhoja apoiou o governante hindushahi, Anandapala, contra Mahmud de Ghazni e deu abrigo a seu filho Trilochanpala.

Ele se juntou a uma confederação de chefes Rajput contra os turcos e conquistou Jhansi, Thaneswar, Nagarkot etc. Assim, ele contribuiu para a defesa do norte da Índia contra as incursões dos turcos. As relações de Bhoja com os Chalukyas de Gujarat também não eram boas.

Ele não teve muito sucesso contra eles, exceto saquear Anhihvada uma vez. Enquanto Bhoja estava envolvido na guerra, tanto no leste quanto no oeste com seus vizinhos, ele morreu de uma doença. Assim, embora Bhoja constantemente se envolvesse em batalhas, ele falhou em obter muitas vantagens. Sua aquisição permanente foi apenas Konkan.

Bhoja se tornou famoso mais por suas perseguições acadêmicas do que por suas conquistas. A autoria de mais de vinte e três livros sobre assuntos variados é atribuída a ele. Ele também foi um patrono das artes e da literatura. Ele patrocinou estudiosos como Dhanapala e Uvata. Ele fundou muitas escolas e uma faculdade em Dhara, onde alunos e estudiosos se reuniam para aprender.

Ele ampliou e embelezou a cidade de Dhara e encontrou uma nova cidade, Bhojapur, perto dela, onde construiu um grande número de templos em homenagem a iva. Tudo isso o colocou na posição de grandes governantes da Índia medieval. O Dr. D.C. Ganguly escreve: & # 8220Todas essas conquistas de Bhoja em diferentes esferas da vida estabeleceram sua reivindicação de ser considerado um dos maiores reis da Índia medieval. & # 8221

Bhoja foi sucedido por Javasinha I. Ele procurou a ajuda do rei Chalukya. Somesvara I, contra os Kalachuris e os Chalukyas. Ele foi derrubado por seus inimigos e foi somente por causa da ajuda do rei Someswara I que ele pôde recuperar seu trono. Em troca, ele ajudou Somesvara I em suas campanhas do Deccan. Mas Jayasinha, eu não consegui me dar bem com o próximo rei Chalukya, Somesvara II.

Somesvara II recebeu ajuda do rei Chalukya Bhimadeva I de Gujarat, atacou Jayasinha I e o matou. Udayaditya, o sucessor de Jayasinha I, procurou a ajuda do Vigraharaja III, o Chauhanaking de Sakambhari e conseguiu recapturar Malwa. Seus sucessores foram Lakshmanadeva e Nara Varman, respectivamente. Ambos lutaram contra Chalukya Jayasinha Siddharaja de Gujarat por sua existência.

Mas Jayasingha Sidharaja, em última análise, conseguiu capturar Malwa em 1135 d.C. O Chaluky governou Malwa por vinte anos. Posteriormente, foi recuperado por Parmara Vindhya Varman de Mularaja II. Vindhya Varman lutou contra os governantes Hoysala e Yadava e mais uma vez estabeleceu o prestígio dos Parmaras em Malwa. Seus sucessores, Subhata Varman e Arjuna Varman, lutaram contra os Chalukyas e os Yadavas Arjuna Varman foi sucedido por Devapala.

O sultão Iltutmish de Delhi ocupou Bhilasa e saqueou Ujijain durante o reinado de Devapala. Devapala foi sucedido por Jaitugideva, Jayasinha II, Arjuna Varman II e Bhoja II respectivamente.

Malwa foi constantemente atacada pelos Yadavas, Chauhanas, Bagehlas e pelos sultões turcos de Delhi durante o reinado desses governantes que quebraram os poderes dos Parmaras em Malwa. O último governante dos Parmaras foi Mahlak Deo. Ele foi atacado por Ala-ud-din Khalji em 1305 d.C., morto por seu general Ain-ul-Mulk e Malwa foi finalmente conquistado pelos muçulmanos.

Rajput King # 2. Prithviraja III Alias ​​Rai Pithora (quase 1178-1192 d.C.):

Quando Prithviraja ascendeu ao trono, ele se viu confrontado com muitas dificuldades e perigos, sendo o pior a invasão dos turcos sob Maomé de Ghur. Muhammad derrubou o governo de Khusrav Malik, o governante da dinastia Yamini de Ghazni, e anexou o Punjab ocidental. Agora seus limites estavam tocando os limites do reino de Prithviraja III. Muhammad estava determinado a conquistar a Índia e Prithviraja III foi o inimigo mais determinado a colocar um freio em sua ambição.

No início do reinado de Prithviraja, Muhammad propôs um tratado de paz com ele enquanto atacava Gujarat. Prithviraja, no entanto, recusou sua oferta e decidiu lutar com ele quando conseguiu a captura de Nadol. Mas Prithviraja e os Chalukyas de Gujarat não se davam bem e, portanto, Prithviraja se absteve de atacar Muhammad naquela época e esperou pelo resultado da batalha entre Muhammad e os Chalukyas. Em 1178 d.C., o rei Chalukya, Mularaja II, derrotou Maomé aos pés de Abu sob a liderança capaz de sua mãe, Nayikadevi.

Prithviraja ficou encantado com a notícia da derrota de Muhammad e então, após reprimir a revolta de seu primo Nagarjuna, ele prosseguiu com seus planos de conquista. Por volta de 1182 d.C., ele derrotou os Bhadanakas que ocupavam os territórios de Rewari, Bhiwani e uma parte do antigo estado de Alwar.

No mesmo ano, ele atacou o governante Chandela Paramardi, também conhecido como Parmal, rei de Jejakabhukti (Bundelkhand). Alha e Udal, os famosos generais de Parmardi, resistiram ferozmente a Prithviraja na batalha, mas foram mortos. Prithviraja ocupou Mahoba e Kalinjar, embora não tenha conseguido mantê-los sob sua submissão por muito tempo. Em 1283 d.C., os Chandelas recapturaram seu reino perdido. Em 1186 d.C., Prithviraja atacou Gujarat.

Ele teve a oposição de Paramara Dharavarsha e Pritihara Jagaddeva, que foram enviados por Bhima II, o rei reinante de Gujarat, para se opor a ele. A batalha permaneceu indecisa, mas, no final das contas, Bhima II aceitou a paz com Prithviraja. Assim, Prithviraja seguiu uma política de conquista contra seus vizinhos, mas a política não teve muito sucesso. Todas essas guerras não parecem ter resultado em qualquer aquisição de território.

Em 1190 d.C., Muhammad de Ghur prosseguiu em direção a Delhi via Punjab. Ele conquistou Tabarhindah (Bhatinda), que estava dentro do território de Prithviraja. Então ele voltou para completar sua preparação para a batalha iminente contra Prithviraja. Enquanto Prithviraja prosseguia em direção a Tabarhindah com o objetivo de recapturá-la, Muhammad voltou e enfrentou Prithviraja no campo de batalha de Tarain, a 80 milhas de Delhi. Esta primeira batalha de Tarain entre Muhammad e Prithviraja foi travada em 1190-91 d.C.

Muhammad foi derrotado e ferido nesta batalha. Um nobre Khalji salvou a vida do sultão tirando-o do campo de batalha. De acordo com o Hammira-Mahakavya, Prithviraja levou Muhammad cativo, mas posteriormente o libertou. Mas parece um relato exagerado. Prithviraja, entretanto, recapturou Tabarhindah e o leste de Punjab.

Enquanto isso, a inimizade entre Prithviraja e Jayachandra, o governante de Kannauj, aumentava. Ambos estavam planejando um contra o outro pela soberania do norte da Índia e, portanto, estavam fadados a entrar em conflito um com o outro. Além disso, provavelmente, a fuga de Sanvogita, filha de Jayachandra, com Prithviraja também se tornou um dos motivos da inimizade e resultou em uma batalha aberta e indecisa entre os dois.

Os historiadores estão divididos sobre a romântica história do casamento de Sanyogita com Prithviraja. O Dr. D.C. Ganguly não aceita a história como um fato histórico, enquanto o Dr. Dashratha Sharma a aceita como um fato. A história, como foi narrada, é que Jayachandra convidou todos os governantes hindus importantes para sua capital para a escolha de um noivo para e por sua filha Sanyogita.

Mas ele não convidou seu inimigo, Prithviraja. Em vez disso, ele colocou sua estátua no portal do salão de reuniões com o objetivo de humilhar Prithviraja, mostrando-o como um guarda do palácio. Sanyogita decidiu aceitar Prithviraja como seu marido e enfeitou sua estátua de sua escolha. Prithviraja, que estava presente disfarçado, fugiu com ela para seu reino.

Enquanto os soldados e generais de Prithviraja enfrentavam e controlavam o exército de Kannauj em diferentes lugares, Prithviraja chegou a Ajmer em segurança com Sanyogita e se casou com ela. Se a história for aceita como um fato histórico, então não há dúvida de que deve ter inflamado a inimizade entre esses dois governantes poderosos do norte da Índia, muito contra o interesse da Índia quando foi seriamente ameaçada pela invasão de Muhammad de Ghur.

Muhammad não conseguia esquecer sua derrota contra Prithviraja. Ele organizou uma força de cento e vinte mil homens em Ghazni e voltou à Índia em 1192 d.C. para vingar sua derrota. Prithviraja o enfrentou novamente no campo de batalha de Tarain. Ele foi apoiado por cerca de 150 chefes feudais, mas nenhum governante de destaque Rajput independente veio em sua ajuda na época daquela calamidade nacional.

Muhammad pediu a Prithviraja que aceitasse o Islã e sua suserania, o que foi rejeitado com desdém. No entanto, Prithviraja ofereceu paz se Muhammad pudesse permanecer contente com a ocupação de Tabarhindah e do leste de Punjab. Muhammad enganou Prithviraja envolvendo-o em conversações de paz e um dia de manhã cedo atacou os Rajputs e os pegou de surpresa.

Os Rajputs foram derrotados no que é conhecido como a segunda Batalha de Tarain. Prithviraja fugiu de lá, mas foi feito prisioneiro no bairro de Sursuti (Sarasvati). Posteriormente, ele foi condenado à morte sob a acusação de conspiração contra a vida do sultão Muhammad.

A segunda batalha de Tarain marcou o fim do império dos Chauhanas. Claro, o filho menor de Prithviraja foi deixado como governante de Ajmer em nome por algum tempo, mas seu governo era simplesmente um fantoche. Hariraja, irmão de Prithviraja, depôs o filho de Prithviraja depois de algum tempo e garantiu a soberania de Ajmer até 1194 d.C.

Posteriormente, Hariraja foi derrotado por Qutb-ub-din Aibak. Hariraja se queimou até a morte e Ajmer foi ocupado pelos turcos. Delhi, estando já nas mãos dos turcos, a queda de Ajmer testemunhou a destruição final dos Chauhanas. Seus descendentes, é claro, continuaram a governar em Ranthambhore, mas a dinastia imperial dos Chauhanas chegou ao fim. Ranthambhore foi finalmente capturado por Ala-ud-din Khalji.

Prithviraja III, aliás, Rai Pithora foi, portanto, o último rei ilustre dos Chauhanas. Mas Prithviraja é famoso não por causa de seu sucesso nas armas ou na diplomacia, mas por causa de seu caráter pessoal, que era representativo de sua época e possuía os vícios e as virtudes dos Rajputs daquela época. Prithviraja foi um lutador capaz e um governante destemido.

Foi corajoso, cavalheiresco, ousado e romântico e, com isso, ganhou fama e fama entre seus contemporâneos. Mas ele não era diplomático nem clarividente. Suas virtudes eram as de um herói de muitas batalhas, em vez de um governante bem-sucedido. Sem saber das perigosas consequências da invasão dos turcos, ele se envolveu em guerras de cavalaria e romance contra seus vizinhos.

Portanto, nenhum deles veio em seu apoio contra Muhammad de Ghur. Claro, 150 chefes feudatórios reuniram-se em seu apoio na segunda batalha de Tarain, mas nenhum deles era um governante independente de qualquer importância. Naquela época, Bhima Deva II de Gujarat e Jayachandra de Kannauj eram outros governantes poderosos do norte da Índia. O exército de Gujarat derrotou Muhammad uma vez e Prithviraja o derrotou sozinho na primeira batalha de Tarain.

Se Bhimadeva II e Jayachandra, ou mesmo um deles, tivesse decidido apoiar Prithviraja na época da segunda batalha de Tarain, havia todas as possibilidades de sucesso dos Rajputs contra os turcos. Nesse caso, o curso da história indiana teria sido diferente. Provavelmente, Bhimadeva II e Jayachandra também não tinham visão de futuro e, portanto, decidiram deixar Prithviraja sozinho contra Muhammad.

Mas Prithviraja deveria ser considerado mais responsável pelo infortúnio de seu império e do povo indiano. Sendo o governante de Delhi, ele estava na porta de entrada da Índia e, principalmente, era sua responsabilidade controlar o avanço dos turcos na Índia. Se ele fosse clarividente e diplomático, poderia ter conseguido obter o apoio de Bhimadeva ou Jayachandra ou de ambos.

Além disso, ele não adotou uma política agressiva contra Maomé. Ele não se aproveitou da derrota de Muhammad contra Mularaja de Gujarat nem de seu próprio sucesso na primeira batalha de Tarain. Ele poderia facilmente explorar o infortúnio de Maomé em seu proveito ocupando Punjab e barrar sua entrada pelo noroeste.

Em vez disso, ele escolheu ficar na defensiva, negligenciou as fortificações e defesas de seu forte fronteiriço de Tabarhindah, que foi facilmente capturado por Muhammad duas vezes, não fez uma preparação adequada para uma batalha final contra Muhammad e até permitiu que Muhammad o derrotasse com um estratagema e ataque surpresa.

Portanto, Prithviraja não era um diplomata nem um comandante militar astuto. Prithviraja é lembrado como um rei cavalheiresco e, mais do que isso, porque os turcos conseguiram estabelecer um império na Índia após sua derrota e, assim, iniciaram um novo capítulo na história indiana. Como outros governantes contemporâneos de sua época, Prithviraja também perdera o direito de governar seus súditos porque ele, também, como outros, falhou em defender a Índia, sua cultura e a vida e honra de seu povo.

Prithviraja, como todos os outros governantes da Índia, não estava tentando defender este país e seu povo contra invasores estrangeiros, mas apenas seu próprio reino. Todos os governantes hindus daquela época tinham uma visão limitada e essa foi uma das principais causas de seu fracasso contra os turcos.

Rajput King # 3. Vijayasena (1095-1158 A.D.):

Vijayasena was an ambitious, courageous and diplomatic king. He converted the small principality of Radha into the strong empire of Bengal. He married Vilasadevi, a princess of the Sura family and entered into an alliance with Ananta Varman, king of Kalinga. He tried to take advantage of the disintegration of the Pala kingdom after the death of its ruler Rampala and desired to conquer the whole of Bengal.

His ambition brought him in conflict with his neighbouring rulers but mostly he succeeded. He defeated the rulers of Kotatavi and Kausambi, led a naval expedition in the west along the course of the Ganga, probably against Govindachandra, the ruler of Kannauj and on this very occasion defeated Nanyadeva, the ruler of Mithila. He occupied Gaunda and forced the last Pala ruler Madanapala to seek safety in Magadha.

About the middle of the twelfth century he defeated Bhoja Varman and conquered East Bengal. Thus, the entire Bengal was united under his rule. He also defeated Raghava who, after the death of his father Ananta Varman, had become the king of Kalinga. The ruler of Kamarupa was also defeated by him. Probably, he snatched away south Bihar as well from the Pala ruler Madanapala.

Thus, Vijayasena was the real founder of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. He ruled for nearly 60 years and brought about peace and prosperity in Bengal which was ruined because of the disintegration of the Pala dynasty. He was a devotee of Siva and built a temple in the Rajshahi district. The poet Umapatidhara lived at his court and composed the famous Deopara-Prasasti from which the details of his reign are known to us.

Rajput King # 4. Dharmapala (770-810 A.D.):

Dharmapala, the son and successor of Gopala proved a great ruler. He understood the feeling of sacrifice and devotion of the people of Bengal and utilised it properly by successfully converting the kingdom of Bengal into one of the foremost empires of northern India.

When he ascended the throne, the Pratiharas, who had established, their power in Malwa and Rajputana were gradually extending their power towards the east and so also the newly established power of the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan desired to possess the plains of north India. Each of them tried to capture Kannauj which was regarded as the key-centre and prestigious state of north India at that time.

Dharmapala desired the same and therefore, came in conflict with both the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. Dharmapala first fought a battle against the Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab and was defeated. But before Vatsaraja could exploit the situation in his favour, the Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva attacked north India and forced Vatsaraja to seek safety in Raiputana. Dhruva proceeded further and defeated Dharmapala as well. But he retreated to the South soon.

The attack of Dhruva in the north and even his own defeat did not harm Dharmapala. On the contrary, it helped him indirectly. Dhruva had given a powerful shock to the growing power of the Partiharas which helped Dharmapala in consolidating his power in northern India. Dharmapala attacked Kannauj, deposed Indrayudha and placed Chakrayudh on the throne under his sovereignty.

Though details are not available about the wars of conquest of Dharmapala, yet it is certain that Bengal and Bihar were under his direct rule, the ruler of Kannauj was under his suzerainty and many other rulers of Punjab, Rajputana, Malwa and Berar also acknowledged his overlordship.

Dharmapala’s position was again challenged by the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II, the son and successor of Vatsaraja. Nagabhatta attacked Kannauj and turned out Chakrayudha who was under the suzerainty of Dharmapala. Therefore, Dharmapala had to fight against Nagabhatta. The battle between the two was fought near Monghyr (Bihar) in which Dharampala was defeated.

But, once again the interference of the Rastrakutas in the politics of the North proved effective. The Rashtrakuta king, Govinda III, attacked north India. Chakrayudha and Dharmapala accepted his suzerainty without fighting. Probably, both of them had invited the Rashtrakuta king to avenge their defeat at the hands of Nagabhatta who fought against Govinda III but was defeated.

Again, the defeat of the Pratiharas by the Rashtrakutas gave Dharmapala an opportunity to consolidate his power in the North. The power of Pratiharas being shattered, he again asserted himself after the retirement of Govinda to the south and gained large territories to his empire. He left a large empire to his son and successor Devapala.

Dharmapala was a capable king. Of course, the transformation of Bengal from a kingdom to an empire was the creation of the spirit of self-sacrifice and political wisdom displayed by the people of Bengal at that time, but, the credit of this achievement goes to king Dharmapala as well. He was a courageous commander and a good diplomat.

He fought many battles, was defeated by the Pratiharas twice, yet he kept up his courage and determination to create an empire. He took great advantage of the conflict of the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas in the politics of north India and succeeded in establishing an empire and also governing it well. He assumed the high sounding titles of Parmeswara, Paramabhattarak and Maharajadhiraj.

For the first time, he, certainly, assigned the empire of Bengal a significant position in the politics of north India. Dr R.C. Majumdar writes of him, “The country which was hopelessly divided by internal dissensions and trampled upon by a succession of foreign invaders for more than a century, was raised by him to the position of a strong integrated state exercising imperial sway over a considerable part of northern India. Sasanka’s dream of founding a great Gauda empire was at last fulfilled.”

Dharmapala distinguished himself in the peaceful pursuits of life as well. He found the famous Vikramsila monastery which afterwards developed into a great centre of Buddhist learning. He also found a great Buddhist Vihara in the Rajshahi district. In his old age Dharampala married Rannadevi, one of the Rashtrakuta princess who gave birth to his son and successor Devapala.

Rajput King # 5. Devapala (810-850 A.D.):

Devapala was a worthy son of a worthy father. He not only kept intact the empire which he inherited from his father but also extended it further. Devapala followed an aggressive imperialist policy and spent a great part of his life in military campaigns. Again, the Pratiharas proved to be the main rival to the Palas. The Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II had occupied Kannauj.

Devapala forced him to retreat and then proceeded to conquer north India. It has been suggested that he made attacks from the Himalayas in the North to the Vindhyas in the South. In the north-west he attacked up to the territories of Kamboja and Punjab. He forced the rulers of Assam and Utkal to accept his suzerainty, attacked the boundaries of the empire of the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta and, probably, fought wars against the Rashtrakutas or the Pandyas of the South.

He also defeated the Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoj. Thus, his military campaigns were successful. Certainly his direct rule was limited to the territories of Bengal and Bihar but most of the rulers of northern India acknowledged suzerainty while the Pratiharas, his powerful rival in the North failed to check his progress. The Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoj could get success and restore the glory of the Pratihara empire only after the death of Devapala.

Devapala ruled for nearly forty years. Leaving apart the success of military campaigns, he has been accepted as a patron of Buddhist religion, literature and fine arts. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described him as a more powerful ruler than his contemporary Pratihara and Rashtrakuta rulers.

Devapala succeeded more than his father. Dr R.C. Majumdar writes of them, “The reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala constitute the most brilliant chapter in the history of Bengal. Never before, or since, till the advent of the British, did Bengal play such an important role in Indian politics.”

The Period of Downfall (850-988 A.D.):

The successors of Devapala proved weak and pursued a peaceful policy which led to the weakening of the Pala empire. Vigrahapala I, the successor of Devapala ruled for a very short period. Vigrahapala I was succeeded by his son, Narayanapala, who ruled between the period 854-908 A.D. He was a man of religious disposition and pursued a pacific policy. This encouraged the enemies of the Palas and both the Rashtrakutas and the Pratiharas took advantage of it.

The policy was followed by feudatory chiefs of the Palas as well. Some time after 860 A.D., the Rashtrakutas defeated the Pala ruler. The Pratiharas also took advantage of the weakness of the Palas and their rulers Mihirbhoj and Mahendrapala gradually extended their power to the east. Narayanapala not only lost Magadhabut also north Bengal for some time.

The feudatory chiefs of Assam and Orissa also got the opportunity to throw off the yoke of the Palas and asserted independence. Thus, the Palas lost their glory and territories and, for a time, the rule of Narayanapala was confined to a part of Bengal only. However, he succeeded in recovering Magadlia and north Bengal from the Pratiharas during the later part of his life.

This was, probably, due to the Rashtrakuta invasion on the Pratihara dominions. Narayanapala was defeated by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II as well, but peace was established and, probably, strengthened by a marriage alliance. Narayanapala was succeeded by Rajyapala, Gopala II and Vigrahapala respectively. Put together, they ruled for nearly eighty years.

But each of them proved to be an incapable ruler and whatever was left by Narayanapala was lost by them. The Chandelas, the Kalachuris and the Kambojas attacked and conquered different territories of the Palas, while the south and east Bengal was occupied by the Chandra dynasty. The disintegration of the Pala empire was, thus, complete.

Rajput King # 6. Mahipala I (988-1120 A.D.):

Mahipala I succeeded to the throne of his father Vigrahapala II about 988 A.D. By that time the territories of the Palas had remained limited to Magadha or south Bihar. The Palas had lost even their ancestral kingdom in Bengal. Mahipala once more revived the power and prestige of the Palas. He ruled during 988-1038 A.D. and constantly engaged himself in wars.

He succeeded in capturing north, west and east Bengal and, towards the west, extended his territories up to Banaras. But his power was seriously shattered by an attack on Bengal by one of the commanders of the Chola king, Rajendra some time during 1021-1023 A.D. Bengal was invaded by Kalachuri ruler Gangeyadeva also towards the close of the reign of Mahipala.

This reduced the extent of the territories of Mahipala, yet he was able to keep control over the larger part of Bengal and Bihar. Mahipala not only saved the Pala kingdom from impending ruin but also restored, to a large extent, the lost glory and power of the Palas. That is why he has been justly regarded as the founder of the second Pala empire. Mahipala constructed and repaired a large number of religious places, towns and tanks at different places.

Mahipala was succeeded by his son Nayapala who ruled during 1038-1055 A.D. The most important event of the reign of Nayapala was the protracted war between Nayapala and Kalachuri ruler Kama. Kama desired to push up the boundary of his empire further to the east at the cost of the Palas. This led to long time enmity between the Palas and the Kalachuris.

However, during the period of Nayapala, after severe conflicts, peace was restored between the two powers primarily because of the efforts of reconciliation by the famous Buddhist monk Dipankara Srijnana. Nayapala was succeeded by Vigrahapala III who ruled during 1055-1070 A.D. During his period Bengal was attacked by different powers. First, the Kalachuri king Kama revived the hostilities and attacked the boundary of western Bengal.

However, peace was restored and Kama even got his daughter married to Vigrahapala. Afterwards, the Chalukya ruler Vikramaditya VI, attacked Bengal and defeated Vigrahapala. Mahasiva Gupta Yayati, ruler of Kosala also raided the territories of Bengal. These foreign attacks weakened the power of Vigrahapala and independent kingdoms were established at different places out of the territories of the Palas. With much difficulty, Vigrahapala was able to keep Gauda and Magadha under his rule.

In 1070 A.D. Mahipala II, son of Vigrahapala III, ascended the throne. He proved quite incapable. His nobles revolted against him and killed him. One of them named Divya or Divoka occupied Varendri (North Bengal).

Mahipala II had imprisoned his brothers — Surapala and Ramapala. During the period of revolt against Mahipala they fled from the prison and established themselves in Magadha. Surapala ruled there for a couple of years and was then succeeded by his younger brother Ramapala in 1077 A.D. Ramapala restored the lost prestige of the Palas and proved to be the last capable ruler of the dynasty.

He defeated Bhima, the successor of Divya and ruler of Varendri (North Bengal) and occupied his kingdom. He defeated and forced the ruler of Assam to accept his suzerainty. He interfered in the politics of Orissa and tried to check the growing influence of the ruler of Kalinga there. He entered into a matrimonial alliance with Govindachandra, king of Kannauj and successfully resisted his ambitions towards the east.

He could also check the power of the Senas of west Bengal and that of Nanyadeva, ruler of north Bihar so that none of them could interfere in his kingdom. Thus, both by diplomacy and war, Ramapala succeeded in restoring and maintaining the power of the Palas at least in a large part of Bengal and Bihar. He died in 1120 A.D. and that resulted in the fall of the Palas.

Rajput King # 7. Mahipala (912-944 A.D.):

Mahendrapala was succeeded by his son Bhoja II but his cousin, Mahipala, shortly dethroned him and became the ruler of Kannauj. During his period, the Rashtrakutas again interfered in the politics of north India. The Rashtrakuta king, Indra III, attacked sometime between 915-918 A.D., defeated Mahipala of Kannauj, occupied Kannauj and pursued Mahipala as far as Allahabad.

But, as on previous occasions, the Rashtrakutas did not stay long enough to consolidate their conquests in the north. So, after the retirement of Indra III to the south, Mahipala again consolidated his position and recovered a large part of his lost empire. But, in the meantime, the Pala rulers took advantage of his weakness and captured some eastern parts of his empire.

Once more, about 940 A.D., the Rashtrakutas attacked the north (during the reign of Krishna III) and occupied the forts of Kalinjar and Chitrakuta. Thus, though Mahipala succeeded in recovering a large part of his empire, the attacks of the Rashtrakutas lowered the power and prestige of the Pratiharas. The advantage was drawn not only by the Palas but also by feudatory rulers. The Chandelas, the Chedis, the Parmaras etc. succeeded in asserting their independence. Thus, though Mahipala could safeguard a large part of his empire yet his period marked the beginning of the decline of the power of Partiharas.

The Successors of Mahipala and the Fall of the Pratihara Empire — (944—Nearly 1036 A.D.):

Mahipala was succeeded by his son Mahendrapala II. He ruled only for a year. Afterwards, we find no less than four successors during a period of fifteen years. Devapala, Vinayakapala II, Mahipala II and Vijayapala ruled in succession over the throne of Kannauj but none of them proved to be a capable ruler. Rather, the quick succession of these rulers proves that family feuds had started among the Pratiharas.

This resulted in the disintegration of the Pratihara empire from the period of Devapala (948 A.D.). Near about 963 A.D., the Rashtrakuta king Indra III again attacked northern India and gave the final blow to the Pratihara domination in Central India. The central authority of the Pratihara empire was broken and out of its ruins arose the independent kingdoms of the Chalukyas in Gujarat, the Chandelas in Jejakabhukti, the Kachchhaghata in Gwalior, the Kalachuris in Central India, the Paramaras in Malwa, the Guhilas in south Rajputana, the Chhahamanas (Chauhanas) in Sakambhari, etc.

Thus, by the time Rajyapala ascended the throne of Kannauj late in the tenth century, he was no more a ruler of an empire but that of a small kingdom. The Pratihara empire had vanished by the time. The Turks invaded India during the reign of Rajyapala. The challenge from the north­west was met by the Brahmanashahi kingdom on the borders of Afghanistan. Rajyapala supported the Brahamanshahi ruler Jaipala against Sabuktagin in 991 A.D. and then his son Anandapala also against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1008 A.D.

Ultimately, Mahmud succeeded in destroying the Brahmanashahi kingdom and attacked Kannauj in 1018 A.D. Rajyapala did not fight against him but fled. Feeling dissatisfied with the shameful behaviour of Rajyapala against a foreign attacker, the Chandela ruler Ganda sent his son Vidyadhar to attack Kannauj. Vidyadhar defeated and killed Rajyapala and placed his son Trilochanapala on the throne of Kannauj.

Trilochanapala was defeated by Sultan Mahmud in 1019 A.D. though he remained alive till 1027 A.D. His successor and the last ruler of Pratihara dynasty was Yasapala who remained as a petty ruler up to 1036 A.D. Thus ended the mighty Pratihara empire. In fact, the power of the Pratiharas had declined during the reign of Mahipala late in the tenth century though, in name, it survived a little longer.

Noted historian Dr R.C. Majunidar has given a respectable position to the Pratiharas in the history of India. He describes that the credit of establishing the last great empire in Hindu India does not go to emperor Harsha but to the Pratiharas. One after the other, Vatsaraja. Nagabhatta II, Mihirbhoj and Mahendrapala I brought glory to the Pratiharas, succeeded in creating an extensive empire in northern India even after fighting against the powerful Palas and Rashtrakutas and maintained that empire for about a century.

Another achievement of the Pratiharas was to check the penetration of the Arabs into the interior of India. Elphinstone and all other historians after him expressed surprise at the fact that the Arabs failed to penetrate deeper into India even at the zenith of their power. The reason was that they were checked by the power of the Pratiharas. The Arabs themselves have given a glorious account of the might and prosperity of the Pratiharas.

The Arab traveller Sulaiman described Mihirbhoj as the greatest enemy of the Islam. Thus, there is no doubt that the Pratiharas effectively checked the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, which must be regarded as a significant contribution of the Pratiharas to the history of India. Besides, even when the power of the Pratiharas was in a broken state, the Pratihara king Rajyapala supported the Brahmanashahi rulers Jaipala and Anandapala against Sabuktagin and Mahmud of Ghazni.

This proves that Rajyapala was also anxious to pursue the traditional policy of the Pratiharas to check the penetration of Muslim invaders into India though, of course, he himself fled against the mighty power of Sultan Mahmud. Thus, the Pratiharas maintained the dignity of a great empire in north India for about a century and fulfilled their duty to fight against foreign invaders.

Besides, the empire of the Pratiharas proved more durable as compared to their contemporary empire- builders — the Palas and the Rashtrakutas. Thus, the Pratiharas played a significant role in the history of India after the fall of the empire of Harsha and were the last empire-builders of Hindu India.

Rajput King # 8. Yaso Varman (Nearly 690-740 A.D.):

In the beginning of the eighth century, we find a powerful monarch Yaso Varman occupying the throne of Kannauj. Nothing is known of the early history and antecedents of this king. Jain-texts have described him as related to the Maurvas while certain scholars regard him related to the Maukhari family as the word varman is attached to his name. But none of the above views has been justified by evidences.

However, Yaso Varman was a powerful monarch who engaged himself in many military adventures. He was a contemporary of Lalitaditya Muktapida, the ruler of Kashmir. He sent Pu-ta-sin (Buddhasena) as his ambassador to China, with which he had diplomatic relations, in 731 A.D. The chief source of our knowledge of his life and reign is the poetical work in Prakrat by his celebrated court-poet Vakapati.

Vakapati has described his conquests in highly glorified terms, yet it is believed that Yaso Varman had certainly succeeded in conquering Magadha and Bengal. His empire extended towards the north-west as well and he defeated the Arabs also. One inscription of the Chalukya king Vijayaditya suggests that Yaso Varman fought against Vinyaditya, father of Vijyaditya.

Both parties had claimed victory in the battle. Therefore, the success of Yaso Varman towards the south is doubtful. However, the inscription refers to him as ‘the great king of North India’ which justifies that Yaso Varman had conquered the greater part of northern India. Yaso Varman was, however, defeated by Lalitaditya, the ruler of Kashmir in 733 A.D. Kalhana, who described the history of Kashmir in his famous work the Rajatarangini has given a detailed description of the long struggle between these two kings.

He explicitly wrote that Yaso Varman was defeated. Probably, both the kings were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other for the sovereignty of north India in which Lalitaditya finally emerged victorious. Yaso Varman, probably, lived even after this defeat but his power and fame were lost. His successors failed to revive the glory of Kannauj and were therefore, lost to obscurity.

Yaso Varman’s rise to power was sudden and so was his fall. He rose to power as a military adventurer like Sasanka of Gauda and Yasodharman of Malwa and the same way he lost his power. However, he was not only a great conqueror but also a patron of learning. Besides Vakapati and many others, the famous poet of Sanskrit language Bhavabhuti, who wrote his renowned works the Malti- madhava, the Mahavira-charita and the Uttar-Ramcharita, was also at his court.

Rajput King # 9. Mihirbhoj (Nearly 836-885 A.D.):

Mihirbhoj made Kannauj his capital and succeeded in consolidating his power and influence in Malwa, Rajputana and Madhya-Desh. But he had to face many challenges and initially failed. He had to fight against Devapal and was defeated, a fact which checked the extension of his power towards further east.

Again, when he tried to take advantage of internal conflicts of the Rastrakutas and attacked south India sometime between 845-860 A.D., he was defeated by Dhruva, the ruling king of the Gujarat-branch of the Rashtrakutas. He was also defeated by the Kalachuri King Kokkalla. These successive defeats resulted in weakening his hold over Rajputana and even the feudatory Pratihara ruler of Jodhpur became independent.

Yet, these reverses failed to subdue the ambition and spirit of Mihirbhoj. He bade his time and waited for the right opportunity. The death of Devapal, ruler of Bengal and, thereafter, weakness of his successors gave him an opportunity to revive his strength towards the east and the peaceful policy pursued by Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha encouraged him to take his chances towards the south.

First, he defeated the Pala king Narayanapala and snatched away from him a considerable part of his western dominions. Next, he took offensive against the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II and defeated him on the banks of the Narmada. Thereafter he occupied Malwa and Kathiawar. He fought once again against the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II at Ujjayini. This time he was defeated. But, whether he lost Malwa or not is not clear.

Yet, Mihirbhoj succeeded in reviving the glory of the Pratiharas and the rulers of Kannauj. He had an extensive empire which included Kathiawar, territories up to the Punjab in the north-west, Malwa and Madhya-Desh. He had consolidated his power in Rajputana and the Kalachuris of Bihar and Chandelas of Bundelkhand had accepted his sovereignty. Dr. R.C. Majumdar writes, “Bhoja thus consolidated a mighty empire in northern India for which Vatsaraja and Nagabhatta had fought in vain, and raised Kannauj, once more, to the posiuon of an imperial city.”

Rajput King # 10. Lakshmanasena (1178-nearly 1205 A.D.):

Lakshmanasena sat on the throne at the ripe age of sixty years. He was a great military leader and fought many victorious battles during the reign of his father and grandfather. When he became king he fought against Jayachandra, the ruler of Kannauj. He succeeded in defeating him and made an attack up to Banaras and Allahabad. He included the larger part of Bihar in his kingdom. He also successfully defended his kingdom against the attacks of the Kalachuris.

But the kingdom of Lakshmanasena began to disintegrate in the closing years of the twelfth century. Some nobles of Lakshmanasena were successful in asserting their independence. And, while the kingdom was thus weakened by internal disruptions. Muhammad Bakhtyar Khalji attacked its capital Nadia and occupied it in a surprise move. Lakshmanasena fled to east Bengal for safety. He continued to rule over east and south Bengal even afterwards but failed to recover his power and prestige. He died shortly after 1205 A.D.

The Successors of Lakshmanasena and the Fall of the Sena Dynasty:

Lakshmanasena was succeeded by his son, Visvarupasena, who ruled for about 14 years. He was succeeded by his brother, Kesavasena who probably ruled over east Bengal up to 1245 A.D. After him, east Bengal was occupied by the Deva- dynasty ruler Dasarathadeva. The rest of Bengal remained in the hands of the Turks.

Importance of the Senas:

The credit of safeguarding Bengal from anarchy after the fall of the Pala dynasty went to the Senas. The Senas believed in Hinduism. They contributed to the revival of Hinduism and Sanskrit literature in Bengal. Vallalasena and Lakshmanasena were scholarly kings and both patronised scholars and education. Jayadeva, the writer of the Halayudha and the Gitagovinda was patronised by them.


Conteúdo

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad was born in 1149 in the Ghor region of Khorasan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha al-Din Sam I, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time. [1] Mu'izz also had an elder brother named Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. During their early life, Mu'izz and Ghiyath were imprisoned by their uncle Ala al-Din Husayn, but were later released by the latter's son Sayf al-Din Muhammad. [3] When Sayf died in 1163, the Ghurid nobles supported Ghiyath, and helped him ascend the throne. Ghiyath shortly gave Mu'izz control over Istiyan and Kajuran. However, the throne was challenged by several Ghurid chiefs Mu'izz aided Ghiyath in defeating and killing a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas.

Ghiyath was then challenged by his uncle Fakhr al-Din Masud, who claimed the throne for himself, and had allied with Tadj al-Din Yildiz, the Seljuq governor of Herat, and Balkh. [4] However, the coalition was defeated by Ghiyath and Mu'izz at Ragh-i Zar. The brothers managed to kill the Seljuq governor during the battle, and then conquered Zamindawar, Badghis, Gharjistan, and Urozgan. Ghiyath, however, spared Fakhr al-Din and restored him as the ruler of Bamiyan. Mu'izz, after returning from an expedition from Sistan, was shortly awarded with Kandahar by his brother. In 1173, the two brothers invaded Ghazni, and defeated the Oghuz Turks who had captured the city from the Ghaznavids. Mu'izz was then appointed as the ruler of Ghazni. [4]

In 1175, the two brothers conquered Herat from its Seljuq governor, Baha al-Din Toghril, and also managed to conquer Pushang. The ruler of Sistan, Taj al-Din Harb ibn Muhammad, shortly acknowledged the sovereignty of the Ghurids, and so did the Oghuz Turks dominating Kirman. [1]

During the same period, the Khwarazmian Sultan Shah, who was expelled from Khwarezm by his brother Tekish, took refuge in Ghor and requested military aid from Ghiyath. Ghiyath, however, did not help the latter. Sultan Shah managed to get help from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, and began plundering the northern Ghurid domains.

After having helped his brother in expanding the western frontiers of the Ghurid Empire, he began to focus on India. Mu'izz's campaign against the Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175 had ended in victory. [5] He turned south, and led his army from Multan to Uch and then across the desert towards the Chaulukya capital of Anhilwara (modern day Patan in Gujarat) in 1178. On the way, Muizz suffered a defeat at the Battle of Kayadara, during his first campaign against an Indian ruler. [5] Gujarat was ruled by the young Chaulukya ruler Mularaja II the Chaulukya forces included the armies of their feudatories such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. [6] Mu'izz's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and the Chaulukyas inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). [5] The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan. [5] However, Mu'izz was able to take Peshawar and Sialkot.

In 1186, Mu'izz, along with Ghiyath, ended the Ghaznavid dynasty after having captured Lahore and executed the Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau-Malik. [7]

Mu'izz shortly returned to Ghor, and along with the rulers of Bamiyan and Sistan, aided his brother Ghiyath in defeating the forces of Sultan Shah at Merv in 1190. He also annexed most of the latter's territories in Khorasan.

First Battle of Tarain

In 1191, Mu'izz proceeded towards Indian Sub-continent through the Khyber Pass in modern-day Pakistan and was successful in reaching Punjab. Mu'izz captured a fortress, Bathinda in present-day Punjab state on the northwestern frontier of Prithvīrāj Chauhān's kingdom. After appointing a Qazi Zia-ud-Din as governor of the fortress, [8] he received the news that Prithviraj's army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai were on their way to besiege the fortress. The two armies eventually met near the town of Tarain, 14 miles from Thanesar in present-day Haryana. The battle was marked by the initial attack of mounted Mamluk archers to which Prithviraj responded by counter-attacking from three sides and thus dominating the battle. Mu'izz mortally wounded Govind Tai in personal combat and in the process was himself wounded, whereupon his army retreated [9] and Prithvīrāj's army was deemed victorious. [10]

According to Rima Hooja and Kaushik Roy, Govind Tal was wounded by Ghori, and later fought at the second battle of Tarain, where he was killed. [11] [12]

Second Battle of Tarain

On his return to Ghor, Mu'izz made preparations to avenge the defeat. According to Firishta, the Rajput army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 cavalry and infantry (most likely a gross exaggeration). [13] Minhaj-i-Siraj, stated Mu'izz brought 120,000 fully armored men to the battle in 1192. [13]

Prithviraj had called his banners but hoped to buy time as his banners (other Rajputs under him or his allies) had not arrived. Before the next day, Mu'izz attacked the Rajput army before dawn. Rajputs had a tradition of fighting from sunrise to sunset. Although they were able to quickly form formations, they suffered losses due to surprise attack before sunrise. The Rajput army was eventually defeated and Prithviraj was taken prisoner and subsequently executed. [10]

Further campaigns

When the state of Ajmer failed to fulfill the tribute demands as per the custom after a defeat, Qutbu l-Din Aibak, in 1193 took over Ajmer [14] and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. [15] Hindu kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Finally his forces advanced on Delhi, capturing it soon after the Battle of Chandwar, defeating Raja Jaichand of Kannauj. [16] Within a year, Mu'izz controlled northern Rajasthan and the northern part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. [17] The Kingdom of Ajmer was then given over to Golā, on condition that he send regular tributes to the Ghurids. [ citação necessária ]

Mu'izz returned west to Ghazni to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkic and Khalaj generals such as Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Followed by his conquest of Delhi. An army led by Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Mu'izz's deputy in India, invaded in ca. 1195–97 and plundered Anahilapataka. [18]

In 1200, Tekish died, and was succeeded by Muhammad II of Khwarezm (who took the honorific name 'Ala' al-Din). Among the first to hear of this were Ghiyath and Mu'izz al-Din. Within weeks the two brothers had moved their armies westwards into Khorasan. Once they had captured Nishapur, Mu'izz al-Din was sent on an expedition towards Ray, but he let his troops get out of control and got little further than Gurgan, earning criticism from Ghiyath which led to the only reported quarrel between the brothers. [19]

Ghiyath died at Herat in 1202 after months of illness. Mu'izz, who had quickly returned to Ghor from India, obtained the support of Ghurid nobles, and was crowned as Sultan of the Ghurid Empire at Firuzkuh. Just after his ascension, Muhammad II invaded his domains, and besieged Herat. Mu'izz managed to repel him from Herat and then pursued him to Khwarezm, besieging Gurganj, their capital. Muhammad desperately requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of the pressure from the Kara-Khitans, was forced to relieve the siege and retreat. However, on his way to his domains in Ghur, he was defeated at Andkhud in 1204. [20] [21] Mu'izz, however managed to reach Ghur, and prepared a counter-attack against the Khwarmezians and Kara-Khitans. A revolt shortly broke out in Punjab and the surrounding regions, which forced Mu'izz to make order in the region before mounting a counter-attack against his enemies.

In 1206, Mu'izz, having settled the affairs in India, [22] left all the affairs in India in hands of his slave Qutb al-Din Aibak.

On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan rested at Dhamiak near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjab province of modern-day Pakistan). He was assassinated on March 15, 1206 while offering his evening prayers. [ citação necessária ] His killers are unconfirmed. It may have been the Khokhars or Ismāʿīlīs. [23] One source states that he was assassinated by the Nizari Ismaili Assassins

In Indian folklore, the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj Chauhan, [24] but this is not borne out by historical documents and Prithviraj died much earlier before the death of Mu'izz. [25] [26]

Mu'izz had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Mu'izz's army and government.

When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Mu'izz retorted:

"Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories." [ This quote needs a citation ]

Mu'izz's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:


1186-1190

1185-1188 Northern Europe: The Kuvlungs insurgence in SW Norway, led by Jon Kuvlung, endagers king Sverre's power, but is eventually crushed.

British Isles: Madoc of Dublin and Leinster subdues in repeated campaigns the southwestern Irish kingdoms of Desmond and Thomond (Munster), then dies and his conquests mostly wane in a sweep of rebellion led by local Irish clans.

British Isles: The High King of Ireland, Rory O'Connor, is overthrown by his son, Connor Maenmaige.

North Africa: The Maurian Catholic count Paul nicknamed Iron Cross, a remote descendant of the Rodrigo/Marmazon who conquered Spain, defeats the Cathar tribes of the Rawel (*OTL Rif) mountains at the battle of Baskara, then turns on the Andalusian and Spanish crusaders who subsequently tried to get rid of him also the vanquished Cathars flock under his banner, now a rallying symbol of national pride.

Byzantine Empire: A bloodless coup deposes Basil I Vatatzes from the throne and makes the immensely popular Alexius Branas the new basileus. The deposed ruler retires as a monk in Bulgaria.

Middle East: Sultan Abdullah of Arabia's army captures Damascus from the Tripoline Crusaders and the Knights of St. John after a protracted siege, crushing three subsequent attempts to relieve the blockade of the city.

Northern Europe: Finnic pirates from Courland and Estonia destroy the Swedish city of Sigtuna.

Southern Europe: Pope Urban III dies, succeeded by the Roman Leo IX (Giacinto Bobone, *OTL Celestine III), who finally settle disputes with the Urbs' populace by allowing the election of local magistrates representing the people. The Genoese wrest from the Pisans the almost impregnable Corsican port of Bonifacio, a town they had been claiming for decades.

North Africa: King Augustine IV of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia) conquers Tlemsen from the local duke, Mastanabal III the Cruel. Middle East: Baalbek and the Bekaa Valley fall in the hands of Mohammed Mansur Billah, sultan Abdullah of Arabia's cousin and best general count Bernat I of Tripoli requests help from Europe against the renewed Muslim comeback. Sultan Al-Adil Saphadin of Egypt allies with the Crusaders of Jerusalem against the Arabian ruler, securing the right to enter the Holy City for Muslim unarmed pilgrims in exchange for the alliance and an annual tribute in Mamluk warriors.

India: The Ghorids liquidate the last Ghaznavid stronghold in Lahore, killing the last scion of the rival dynasty, Khusraw Malik.

Southern Europe: A major heretical revolt shakes Lombardy, as thousands of poors flock to the banners of Arnaldist preacher Ranieri da Parma. The movement, after sacking the countryside, burning to ashes some castles and minor towns and coming to besiege some cities, is finally crushed and annihilated and its leaders horribly tortured to death.

1188 Western Europe: Tournai becomes a free town, sparking the Communal movement in the active trade environment of Flanders.

Southern Europe: The rift between the Guidoni (Piedmontese) and Amedei (royal) branches of the Lombard Susa-Biandrate Anscarids is finally composed by two dynastical marriages in the event of an extinction of one of the families, the other would inherit its lands.

Central-Eastern Europe: A Hungarian invasion of Galicia is defeated by the Pólacak/White Ruthenians at the battle of Sambor. The pagan Yotvingians of duke Mingayl kill in battle the king of Poland Casimir II the Just and establish at Grodno their independent duchy of Sudovia as an ally of the powerful Pólacak Empire of Polotsk/Palteskei. Mieszko III the Old regains the Polish crown and pays tribute to the White Ruthenians.

Middle East: The Knight Hospitalier of Saint John lead the legendary defence of Krak des Chevaliers against the hordes of Sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam of Arabia

Central-Eastern Europe: Mieszko III reigns in Poland, supported by his brother-in-law, the Ruthenian Czar Volodar of Polotsk he is constantly fought by the nobility, supporting the cause of Leszek the White e Conrad of Mazovia, Casimir II's young sons, as the kingdom slips more and more into feudal anarchy.

1189 Central-Eastern Europe: Konchak Khan establishes the Khanate of Cumania in OTL Moldavia after defeating the Vlacho-Bulgarians at the Prut river and sacking Kiev. Middle East: Sultan Abdullah's forces crush the last Zengid emirate in Mosul, who was trying to put up a desperate alliance with the Crusaders against the new master came from the desert. A subsequent Arab invasion of Palestine to capture Jerusalem is halted in the bloody battle of Nablus by allied Crusader and Egyptian forces.

Arabia: Wali (*Sunni “Pope”) Abdussalam I of Mecca abolishes the title of Caliph, claiming it had a sense only until the creation of the Waliate this fatwa (*decision) is supported by sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam bin Yusuf an-Nafudi, a zealot partisan of Waliist Islam.

India: In reaction to the formal abolition of any Caliphate by the Meccan Waliate, the Ghorid Caliphist sultan Muhammad proclaims himself Caliph, sparking major Waliist and Ismaili revolts and a rivalry with his brothers that weaken his empire. Final fall of the Chalukyas of Kalyani (Karnataka) their ancient kingdom is carved between the Seunas/Yadavas in the north, the Kakatiyas and the Hoysalas in the remaining lands.

British Isles: The young Owain ap Iorwerth rebels against his uncle Dafydd I of Wales and secures the throne as king Owain III with the help of emperor Amaury the Great of Greater Normandy, renewing Welsh feudal submission and dynastical ties to the Normans. The defeated Dafydd will die as a monk in France.

1189-1191 Byzantine Empire: Basileus Alexius II Branas counterattacks the Turks in Anatolia by allying with the Danishmendids against the Ortoqids and their clients. Byzantine forces defeat and kill Alpay Yusuf of Iconium, enthroning there his Christian cousin Gregory as duke of Batiturkeia Crusader strongholds in the Taurus are also eliminated or subdued, surviving only along the southern Anatolian coast.

1190 Southern Europe: The Serbs defeat the Byzantine army in the Morava valley, securing their independence from Constantinople.

Arabia: Sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam conquers Aden from the Egyptians, then campaigns in Oman, completing his conquest of the Arabic peninsula. Actually, its southern fringes remain a hotbed of Zaydi (Yemen) and Ibadi-Khariji (Oman) rebellious tribes, being subjected only in name to the sultan, and, worst of all, firmly adverse to Waliism.

India: The Hoysala ruler, Ballala II, defeats his Seuna/Yadava rival Bhillama V at the battle of Sorituru, winning the struggle for the Chalukya legacy in southern India.

SE Asia: Anawratha's dynasty is restored in Pagan (Burma) with help from his Sri Lankan allies following a civil war. The Khmers capture Vijaya (*OTL Binh Dinh, Vietnam), again vassalizing their Cham rivals.


Assista o vídeo: Bitwa pod Orszą. Zatrzymana ekspansja Moskwy