Mohican ScSlp - História

Mohican ScSlp - História

moicano
(ScSlp: dp. 1.461; 1. 198'9 "; b. 33 '; dr. 13'; s. 10,5 k .; cpl. 160; a. 2 11", 4 32-pdrs .; cl. Mochican)

O primeiro moicano, uma chalupa a vapor de guerra, foi construído por Portsmouth Navy Yard, N.H., em agosto de 1858, lançado em 15 de fevereiro de 1859; e comissionado em 29 de novembro de 1869, Comdr. S. W. Godon no comando.

Atribuído ao Esquadrão Africano, Mohican partiu de Portsmouth em 19 de janeiro de 1860 para o Atlântico Sul e, no ano seguinte e meio, fez uma patrulha contra piratas e escravistas nas costas da África e, às vezes, do Brasil. Em 8 de agosto de 1860, o saveiro capturou o escravagista Erie ao largo do Congo e forçou aquele navio a descarregar sua carga cativa em Monróvia, Libéria. Ela permaneceu na estação até o embarque para casa em 13 de agosto de 1861 e após sua chegada a Boston, em 27 de setembro, navegou para se juntar ao esquadrão de bloqueio do Atlântico Sul, Samuel F. DuPont, ao largo de Sandy Hook, NJ, partindo de Norfolk em 29 de outubro para Port Royal, SC, como parte do maior esquadrão naval dos Estados Unidos montado até então, o saveiro navegou na linha de batalha em 7 de novembro enquanto o esquadrão da DuPont golpeava Fort Walker em Hilton's Head, forçando os confederados a abandonar a localização, permitindo assim que um Exército da União e uma Força da Marinha combinadas pousassem e ocupar esta importante base de operações. Moicano foi atingido seis vezes por projéteis confederados neste combate, sofrendo danos superficiais no casco e tendo um homem morto e sete feridos.

O navio navegou para Charleston Bar no final de novembro, acompanhando parte da "Frota de Pedra", e ficou parado enquanto esses navios eram afundados, 18 e 19 de dezembro, para obstruir os canais para os portos confederados nas Carolinas e Geórgia. O navio de guerra então operou
a costa sul com o navio Bienvillie em busca de navios confederados, capturando o corredor do bloqueio britânico Arroto em Fernandina, Flórida, em 25 de fevereiro de 1862. Em companhia do saveiro Pocahontas e da escuna Potomska, ela tomou posse das ilhas St. Simon's e Jekyl perto de Brunswick, Gal, 9 e 10 de março, mas os encontraram desertos por causa de uma retirada geral dos confederados do litoral e das ilhas costeiras. No início de abril, Hohioan fez um reconhecimento do rio Wilmington para determinar a melhor maneira de obstruí-lo, ajudando a isolar o forte Pulaski de Savannah como parte do ataque projetado a esse forte e, em seguida, operou fora da baía de St. Simon, Gal, no bloqueio até ordenado a Filadélfia em 29 de junho. O navio foi desativado lá em 9 de julho.

Moicano foi recomissionado em 17 de outubro de 1862 e 5 dias depois foi condenado ao serviço especial perseguindo os invasores confederados Flórida e Alabama. Navegando imediatamente, o navio cruzou na estação das Ilhas de Cabo Verde ao Cabo da Boa Esperança operando nas costas da África e América do Sul em 1864. Ele retornou à Filadélfia sem entrar em contato com o esquivo inimigo em 14 de abril de 1864 e foi desativado lá 2 semanas depois .

Reativado em 7 de outubro, o navio de guerra foi designado para o Esquadrão de Bloqueio do Atlântico Norte do Contra-almirante David Dixon Porter e partiu de Wilmington, N.C., até dezembro. Ela então se juntou ao resto do esquadrão no ataque ao Fort Fisher nos dias 24 e 25 de dezembro, disparando mais de 500 projéteis no violento bombardeio. Moicano retomou seu bloqueio, agora fora de Beautort, NC, até o segundo ataque em Fort Fisber, de 13 a 15 de janeiro de 1865. Como parte da primeira linha de batalha, o saveiro bombardeou o bastião confederado durante a campanha de 3 dias, fornecendo cobertura fogo para os desembarques do segundo e terceiro dias até a tomada do forte no dia 15. Durante o combate, Moicano perdeu um homem morto e dez feridos.

O navio de guerra foi enviado ao Esquadrão de Bloqueio do Atlântico Sul, contra John Dahlgren, em 17 de janeiro, levando despachos para o general William T. Sherman. Ela começou a bloquear Ossabaw, S.C., em 3 de fevereiro e permaneceu lá até receber ordem para norte no dia 24. O saveiro a vapor descomissionou no Boston Navy Yard em 26 de abril de 1865 e lá permaneceu reparando até o recomissionamento em 18 de agosto de 1866. O saveiro foi então atribuído ao Esquadrão do Pacífico e partiu em 6 de setembro para a costa oeste, navegando via St. Thomas, portos no Brasil, Montevidéu , ao redor do Cabo Horn, para Valparaíso, juntando-se ao Contra-Almirante Dahlgren em Powhatan em Callao, Peru, 25 de abril de 1867 e então navegando pela costa do Pacífico, através do Panamá e da costa do México, chegando a São Francisco em 28 de julho.

O Mohican permaneceu na costa do Pacífico até 1872, navegando para a América do Sul no outono e inverno de 1867 e depois desativando de 3 de abril de 1868 a 7 de junho de 1869 no Mare Island Navy Yard. O navio de guerra fez um cruzeiro para a Sibéria e a costa noroeste durante o verão de 1869 e então partiu em 11 de outubro para fazer um cruzeiro para o Havaí, retornando em 11 de janeiro de 1870. Ele então fez um segundo cruzeiro para o noroeste do Pacífico e em maio navegou para patrulhar o México . Em 17 de junho de 1870, após uma perseguição de 2 dias, o Moicano atacou o navio pirata mexicano Foru ~ ard, que havia aterrorizado a costa no mês anterior. e capturado. O saveiro continuou seu cruzeiro até o sul até Callao até agosto de 1871, retornando no dia 25. O navio de guerra fez mais um cruzeiro ao longo da costa do México até o Panamá de outubro a abril de 1872. O moicano foi desativado na Ilha de Mare em 25 de junho de 1872 e, no final do ano, havia afundado em suas amarras. Posteriormente, ela foi rebocada para as planícies lamacentas da Ilha Mare e fragmentada.


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O CANAL MAHICANO. Fortes, contos e lendas

Trabalhadores que cavavam uma fundação atrás do Holly Tree Inn desenterraram os restos mortais de 250 anos de dois soldados neste mês, e um historiador diz que mais 100 ainda estão em sepulturas não marcadas na área. Restos de esqueletos que os arqueólogos acreditam ser de jovens que morreram na Batalha do Lago George foram descobertos quando os proprietários do Holly Tree, na Rota 9 e na Birch Street, começaram a preparar o terreno para as casas. Gerry Bradfield, curador do Fort William Henry, propriedade privada, disse que tem um relato de testemunha ocular de um enterro em massa de 126 homens neste local à sombra da Montanha Prospect. As forças francesas e britânicas entraram em confronto aqui durante a Guerra Francesa e Indiana. Eles estavam lutando pelo controle do lago, parte de uma via navegável estratégica do Canadá a Albany. O xerife do condado de Warren, Larry Cleveland, disse que o empreiteiro ligou para seu escritório quando os ossos foram encontrados, mas os policiais rapidamente determinaram que o local não era uma cena de crime. Encontrar túmulos não é incomum por aqui ”, disse Cleveland. David Klinge, da Hartgen Archaeological Associates of Rensselaer, disse que um antropólogo físico revisou os restos mortais e examinou o local em busca de sinais de práticas funerárias europeias. Bradfield tem fotos de 1965, quando duas dúzias de irmãos de armas dos soldados caídos foram descobertos quando o motel foi construído. Os homens provavelmente foram mortos durante um dos três confrontos entre as forças francesas, britânicas e indianas em 8 de setembro de 1755, disse o curador. Os atuais proprietários do Holly Tree, onde os quartos custam US $ 50 por noite no meio da semana, não falariam sobre a descoberta. Vinnie Crocitto, cuja mãe foi dona do hotel por 30 anos, disse que se lembra do construtor George Hayward explicando a história do local. Uma reportagem de jornal de 1965 mostra Hayward segurando um esqueleto e posando para uma foto com Jim McGee, que na época era o curador do Fort William Henry. Botões de uniformes franceses foram descobertos no solo arenoso da época. Crocitto, agora gerente de um Super 8 próximo, disse que sua mãe colocou um novo nível no hotel, acrescentando sete quartos, mas "nunca tocamos o solo". e anos 60. Aqueles que os encontraram deram os ossos ao tio de Bradfield, Edwin McEnaney, um co-fundador do forte. Eventualmente, eles foram enterrados sob o marcador & quotJohn Doe & quot no cemitério do forte. O forte original foi demolido em 1757, menos de dois anos depois de ter sido construído. Dezenas de restos mortais foram descobertos quando começaram os trabalhos de construção de uma réplica em 1953. Os ossos ficaram em exibição por 40 anos, de acordo com placas no cemitério. Eles foram enterrados em 1993. Em 2001, um conjunto de restos mortais, que havia sido escalpelado, foi encontrado sob uma calçada. O esqueleto foi reenterrado mais tarde naquele ano. Embora o Departamento de Parques, Recreação e Preservação Histórica do estado tenha sido notificado sobre os ossos em Holly Tree, a porta-voz Kathy Jimenez disse que espera que o estado tenha pouco a ver com eles. & quotNão temos envolvimento direto neste caso, falamos com o proprietário e o incentivamos a contratar um arqueólogo. Recomendamos que, se os restos mortais precisarem ser removidos, eles o façam com sensibilidade e os enterrem novamente ”, disse Jimenez. Ela explicou que se os restos mortais forem encontrados em terras públicas ou se dinheiro público for usado para obras de construção, o estado muitas vezes solicita um levantamento arqueológico em áreas historicamente sensíveis. É o caso do Lake George Forum, um centro de convenções e pista de patinação em construção em frente ao Holly Tree. Nenhum resto foi encontrado lá, disse Bradfield. No caso de um enterro sem identificação, Jimenez disse que seu departamento só pode fazer recomendações. Bradfield disse que se ofereceu para enterrar os esqueletos com os outros no cemitério do forte. Ele disse que os proprietários parecem ansiosos para fazê-lo. Jim Anselmo estava substituindo sua filha, a gerente regular do Holly Tree, na quarta-feira, enquanto os trabalhadores despejavam concreto nos fundos. Os proprietários compraram os chalés atrás da Mansão Colonial, que foi demolida para dar lugar ao Fórum Lake George, e planejam movê-los pela Rota 9 para assentar no novo concreto. Nesse ínterim, motéis e uma gaiola de batedura marcam os túmulos anônimos de jovens que morreram aqui antes do nascimento do país.

FORT EDWARD, FORT TICONDEROGA E O VALE DE HUDSON

O Canal de Mahican, outrora o coração do país moicano, era a principal rota de viagem de Albany a Montreal. Este filão de Nova York pulsa com as águas do rio Hudson, do lago George e do lago Champlain. Foi o corredor estratégico que hospedou as lutas mais intensas das guerras coloniais. Em segundo lugar, depois do Hudson, está o rio Mohawk, seu principal afluente. Fluindo pelo vale do centro de Nova York, ao sul das montanhas Adirondack, o rio Mohawk atravessa o sudeste até se unir com o grande rio Hudson, ao norte de Albany. Esses dois vales fluviais pitorescos são marcados por colinas, florestas, riachos, lagos, campos agrícolas e montanhas. Ambos serpenteiam por uma terra de intensa beleza!

Complementando este lindo país está sua rica história, talvez uma combinação incomparável. Aqui, em meio ao esplendor da selva, estavam os campos de batalha sangrentos e assentamentos arrasados, a cadeia aparentemente interminável de postos avançados e fortalezas. Embora seja difícil resistir à tentação de incluir fotos e narrativas dos muitos fortes e campos de batalha de todo o interior do estado de Nova York, e a região seja uma "bela característica da guerra nas Américas", é "melhor manter a visão fixa no nosso dever '! Para isso, devemos permanecer na trilha do Canal de Mahican. mas explore também as muitas outras regiões históricas!

Isso é tudo o que resta de Fort Edward hoje.

No local conhecido como The Great Carrying Place - onde o rio Hudson, depois de escapar das montanhas Adirondack, se curva acentuadamente para o sul, em direção a Albany e a cidade de Nova York além - uma sucessão de postes e fortes, que acabariam se transformando em Fort Edward, deveriam ser ocupar o solo. Era um lugar estratégico, já que qualquer um que usasse o grande canal norte / sul do Hudson e os lagos ao norte, George e Champlain, precisava viajar de ou para aqui por terra. Daí o nome. bateaux, canoas, suprimentos, todos precisavam ser transportados carregando-os. Assim, na época de LOTM, o Fort William Henry ficava na extremidade norte do portage, a extremidade sul do Lago George, enquanto o Fort Edward ficava na curva, o terminal sul. uma distância de aproximadamente 17 milhas.

Construído em 1755, o Fort Edward é mais notável por sua associação com Robert Rogers e seus Rangers. Adjacente ao forte, em uma ilha situada na grande curva do rio Hudson, ficava o acampamento base dos Rangers de Rogers durante as guerras francesa e indiana. Havia neste local, chamado Rogers Island, um hospital, uma fortificação, quartéis e cabanas de Ranger. Um centro de atividades durante as guerras francesa e indiana, Fort Edward foi abandonado em 1766 pelos britânicos quando eles se mudaram para Crown Point. Deixado em ruínas, o forte caiu em ruínas e nenhuma parte da uma vez crucial base militar existe hoje.

O chocante assassinato de Jane McCrea vinte anos após o cerco de Fort William Henry inflamou a oposição colonial e serviu de inspiração literária para James Fenimore Cooper. O trágico destino de Jane foi imediatamente apreendido pelos propagandistas do Patriota e os mitos obscureceram a realidade, mas os fatos conhecidos fazem um paralelo, de certa forma, com o relato fictício de Cooper sobre a emboscada em George Road e o cativeiro na caverna.

Jane McCrea era a filha de vinte e seis anos de um ministro presbiteriano e noiva de David Jones, um oficial legalista servindo sob o comando do general britânico, "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne. (Burgoyne não ganhou seu apelido por suas boas maneiras, mas sim por sua predileção por uma vida requintada!) Em 27 de julho de 1777, durante uma visita à casa da Sra. McNeil a poucos quilômetros ao norte de Fort Edward, Jane e seu companheiro foram capturados por uma patrulha indiana de Burgoyne. Essas duas filhas de escoceses tinham uma falsa sensação de segurança, acreditando-se imunes a tal perigo devido ao seu apego ao acampamento britânico. Os sequestradores indianos se separaram em dois grupos, cada um com uma das mulheres. Quando a notícia do sequestro chegou ao acampamento britânico, o noivo de Jane & # 65533e enviou outra patrulha indiana para escoltar sua noiva em segurança até o acampamento.

O captor de Jane foi um Huron chamado Le Loup (um nome francês que significa "o lobo", ele também é conhecido como "Pantera"). Le Loup esperava receber o dinheiro do resgate em troca da jovem. Os dois grupos se encontraram ao norte do ponto onde o rio Hudson flui para o leste antes de continuar para o sul, diretamente do outro lado da Ilha de Rogers. A chegada do grupo de escolta frustrou a trama do Huron e eles passaram a guiar a Srta. McCrea em direção ao acampamento britânico. Le Loup, irritado com a interferência, tentou retomar seu prisioneiro. Seguiu-se uma discussão e, durante a confusão, o Huron rancorosamente arrastou Jane de seu cavalo, atirou nela e habilmente 'removeu suas tranças'. O couro cabeludo de Jane foi trazido para o acampamento britânico, onde foi identificado pelo noivo conservador da mulher morta & # 65533e. Apesar do forte clamor por justiça, Burgoyne se recusou a punir o Huron, sabendo que ele perderia seus aliados indianos se o fizesse.

Miss McCrea tornou-se uma mártir instantânea. Diz-se que sua morte e a indignação que a acompanhou ajudaram muito no levantamento de tropas da milícia colonial, que por sua vez ajudaram a derrotar o general Burgoyne após a Batalha de Saratoga. Jane McCrea estava tão consagrada no martírio que ela foi enterrada não uma, mas três vezes! Sua primeira sepultura foi no local de um acampamento Patriot, cerca de três quilômetros ao sul de Fort Edward. Ela foi então enterrada novamente no cemitério do Forte. O muito arrastado sobre Jane McCrea foi finalmente reenterrado em 1852 no Cemitério Union, ao norte da casa de McNeil, onde ela começou sua provação.

Neste evento histórico, temos um huroniano que tem dois nomes, um dos quais francês, que traiçoeiramente leva cativas duas mulheres, uma das quais está romanticamente envolvida com um oficial britânico. Quando recebe a ordem de libertar seu refém, ele reage com desafio hostil. Não querendo desistir de sua propriedade porque 'o guerreiro não tem couro cabeludo', o Huron enojado atira na donzela indefesa na frente de seus supostos salvadores. Em O Último dos Moicanos de Cooper, o vilão traiçoeiro também é um Huron. Ele também tem o nome dualístico de Magua e o francês "Le Renaud" (a raposa) e, como Le Loup, leva duas mulheres em cativeiro. Essas irmãs são, assim como Jane McCrea e Mrs. McNeil, filhas de um escocês. Quando Magua ouve a decisão vingativa do sachem em relação ao destino de suas vítimas, ele se afasta furiosamente. Como Jane McCrea, o prisioneiro de Magua é assassinado com rancor. (No romance não há nenhum suicídio desesperado, desesperado, Cora é esfaqueado quando Uncas tenta seu resgate!) E como Jane McCrea, as vítimas de Magua são capturadas nas proximidades de Fort Edward, nas proximidades de Glen's Falls. O Último dos Moicanos então, à sua maneira, continua a lenda do assassinato de Jane McCrea.

Jane McCrea compartilha mais do que assassinato com a lenda. Ela é uma alma gêmea de outro Duncan malfadado. Enterrado perto dela está Duncan Campbell de Inverawe, ele mesmo objeto de uma lenda assustadora!

"Nemo me impune lacessit"

- Ninguém me provoca sem se machucar.

A lenda de Ticonderoga

Duncan Campbell de Inverawe era um montanhês escocês, major do 42º Regimento de Pé, ou Highlanders Real. também conhecido como Black Watch. O major Campbell serviu na América durante a Guerra da França e da Índia, destinada a um lugar de acenos sinistros.

Vários anos antes da eclosão da Guerra Francesa e Indiana, Duncan Campbell, Laird do Castelo de Inverawe, experimentou a chegada de alguns convidados incomuns. Uma noite, Duncan ouviu uma batida na porta do castelo. Ao abri-lo, ele foi saudado por um homem com roupas rasgadas e um saiote manchado de sangue. O estranho confessou que matou um homem durante uma briga e pediu asilo em Inverawe. Duncan prometeu abrigar o homem e não contar a ninguém sobre sua presença. "Jure pelo seu punhal!" implorou ao fugitivo, e então Duncan praguejou. Ele escondeu o estranho e logo ouviu outra batida forte na porta. Dois homens desta vez anunciaram que o primo de Duncan, Donald, havia sido assassinado e que estavam procurando por seu assassino. Em homenagem ao juramento de sigilo que fez, Campbell fingiu ignorar o assunto. Com grande pesar por ter sido obrigado a violar os laços do clã por causa de sua palavra juramentada, Duncan caiu em um sono inquieto. Ele foi acordado depois disso com o aparecimento do fantasma de Donald parado ao lado de sua cama, gritando "Inverawe! Inverawe! Sangue foi derramado. Não proteja o assassino!"

Na manhã seguinte, um enervado Laird Duncan foi até o assassino de seu primo e declarou que não poderia mais escondê-lo. "Você jurou em seu punhal!" o fugitivo desafiado. Ele estava certo, é claro. A honra celta de Campbell o impedia de quebrar sua palavra, mas seus laços de clã não podiam ser ofendidos, como a visitação de seu parente morto o lembrava com tanto entusiasmo. Ele decidiu esconder sua enfermaria pesada em uma caverna próxima, acreditando que era o melhor compromisso com as lealdades conflitantes. Naquela noite, o fantasma horrível reapareceu e gritou novamente: "Inverawe! Inverawe! O sangue foi derramado. Não proteja o assassino!" Duncan correu ao amanhecer para a caverna onde ele descobriu que o matador de parentes havia partido. Apreensivo, Duncan Campbell retirou-se naquela noite e novamente o Donald não vingado apareceu. Esta noite ele não repetiu a reprimenda de desonra, mas disse esta frase intrigante: "Adeus, Inverawe! Adeus, até nos encontrarmos em Ticonderoga!" Depois disso, o Laird Duncan Campbell não foi mais assombrado pelo fantasma de seu primo. mas por suas palavras. Ticonderoga? O significado desse nome estranho era um mistério que Duncan não conseguia resolver, nem poderia esquecer.

Com a chegada do respeitado regimento Black Watch na América, o major Duncan Campbell logo soube o local de destino do regimento. O 42º era para participar de um assalto. Ticonderoga! Horrorizado ao ouvir o nome misterioso pronunciado por Donald revelado como seu destino, o Major temeu sua condenação. Familiarizados com a história misteriosa, os companheiros Highlanders de Campbell tentaram aliviar sua ansiedade. Quando chegaram a Ticonderoga na véspera da batalha, falaram falsamente: "Isto não é Ticonderoga, ainda não chegamos, este é o Forte George." A manhã de 8 de julho chegou, hora marcada para o encontro de Duncan Campbell com o destino. O major saudou seus irmãos Highlander com sua própria declaração. "Eu o vi! Você me enganou! Ele veio à minha tenda ontem à noite! Aqui é Ticonderoga! Eu vou morrer hoje!"

Com a decisão do destino, o Major Duncan Campbell e o Black Watch lutaram bravamente e com grande perda de vidas. O braço de Campbell foi quebrado durante o ataque malfadado, quando ele foi levado para Fort Edward para amputação. Ele morreu nove dias depois, em 17 de julho de 1758. O Laird de Inverawe foi enterrado no cemitério de Fort Edward, mas posteriormente reenterrado no Union Cemetery. perto de Jane McCrea.

Há mais na lenda de Duncan Campbell e as aparições dos Highlander, mas não vamos contar. ainda.

E então há o fantasma sem cabeça de um oficial francês que supostamente vagueia pelos arredores do Antigo Forte de Niágara!

História . você tem que adorar!

No extremo sul do Lago George, a sudeste de Fort William Henry e a cinco quilômetros do local do Fort George, há um local tranquilo chamado Bloody Pond. O nome infame nasceu da Batalha do Lago George em 1755.

No verão daquele ano, Sir William Johnson chefiou uma expedição pelo Vale do Hudson. Seu objetivo era capturar o Fort St. Frederic em Crown Point, o ponto de partida para ataques franceses e indianos aos assentamentos da fronteira inglesa. As forças de Johnson incluíam Provinciais, bem como Mohawks liderados pelo idoso Thoyanoguen, também conhecido como Rei Hendrick. Um acampamento foi estabelecido em The Great Carrying Place e a construção de armazéns e um forte foi iniciado. Johnson e 1.500 soldados continuaram em direção ao norte em direção ao lago. Chegando a Lac Du St. Sacrement em 28 de agosto, Johnson rebatizou as águas de Lake George como uma declaração de posse dos ingleses.

Enquanto Johnson acampava no extremo sul do Lago George, preparando-se para a marcha contra Crown Point, uma força francesa liderada pelo Barão Dieskau estava se movendo para o sul, saindo de Crown Point, seu destino era o novo posto avançado em construção no Great Carrying Place, chamado Fort Lyman. Em 7 de setembro, um grupo de batedores Mohawk chegou ao acampamento de Johnson com notícias do movimento francês para o sul. Na manhã de 8 de setembro, um destacamento de tropas provinciais liderado pelo coronel Ephraim Williams, junto com 200 mohawks liderados por Hendrick foi enviado para deter o avanço francês. Ao longo da estrada de Fort Lyman ao Lago George, as tropas inglesas marcharam para uma emboscada bem planejada. Tanto o coronel Ephraim Williams quanto o rei Hendrick foram mortos e o contingente provincial quase foi eliminado. Os sobreviventes inexperientes e em pânico retiraram-se para o acampamento de Johnson, onde foram imediatamente feitos os preparativos para a defesa.

Durante a batalha subsequente no lago, os comandantes ingleses e franceses ficaram feridos. Dieskau repreendeu furiosamente seus canadenses e indianos, que considerou indisciplinados demais, e o ataque foi realizado pelos regulares. O general Phineas Lyman assumiu o comando das tropas inglesas e, embora os regulares franceses mantivessem um tiroteio persistente no centro das defesas inglesas, a distância era muito grande. As tropas de Lyman expulsaram os franceses do campo de batalha à tarde e capturaram o general Dieskau ferido, que foi deixado para trás por suas forças.

Embora os ingleses fossem vitoriosos, a perda de tantos, especialmente o coronel Williams e o rei Hendrick, roubou o fogo de sua luta. Johnson abandonou o plano de avançar contra Crown Point, permanecendo no lago. Ele renomeou o forte Lyman na curva do rio Hudson para Fort Edward e iniciou a construção de outro forte que, dois anos depois, ganharia a trágica infâmia de Fort William Henry.

O quatro vezes ferido Barão Dieskau, enquanto um prisioneiro no campo de Lake George, tornou-se o objeto da fúria Mohawk e da indignação inglesa. Lamentados pela perda do Rei Hendrick e de muitos guerreiros na emboscada, os Mohawks queriam matar Dieskau e várias vezes chegaram perto de fazê-lo. A vida do prisioneiro foi protegida pela intervenção de William Johnson, mas sua honra não. Foi alegado que os franceses estavam disparando balas de mosquete envenenadas e um irritado General Lyman diariamente desfilava pela tenda de Dieskau com reprovações e insultos. De acordo com o cirurgião Thomas Williams, irmão do coronel Williams morto, as balas de mosquete francesas foram "enroladas com uma dissolução de cobre e arsênico amarelo".

Após a emboscada e derrota do destacamento do coronel Ephraim Williams, muitos canadenses e indianos demoraram a saquear e escalpelar os cadáveres dos infelizes provincianos e mohawks. Eles demoraram muito. assim, eles foram surpreendidos e ultrapassados ​​por mais tropas provinciais de Fort Lyman (Fort Edward). Os corpos dos canadenses e indianos mortos teriam sido jogados sem cerimônia no lago próximo. O sangrento sepulcro não é mais um lago, pois foi coberto com serragem de uma serraria local. O que é marcado como "Lago Sangrento" hoje não é o verdadeiro lago da fama de batalha.

(Nota: Major George Bray apontou que não apenas a referência da cidade ao lago existente como "Lago Sangrento" está incorreta, a placa próxima montada na rocha afirma erroneamente que a Batalha do Lago George foi o primeiro compromisso de Robert Rogers. famoso ranger não esteve presente na batalha.)

Uma vista aérea de Fort Ticonderoga (Carillon) no Lago Champlain.

Fort Carillon, mais tarde conhecido como Fort Ticonderoga, foi o forte francês mais meridional. Construído em 1756 no extremo sul do Lago Champlain no local de um posto fortificado, o forte foi um importante elo na rota Hudson - Champlain para o Canadá, bem como o forte sentinela do portage entre o Lago Champlain e o Lago George.

Sua localização estratégica tornava-o uma posse altamente cobiçada em uma região que havia se tornado um ponto de encontro perpétuo de grandes exércitos. Durante a guerra francesa e indiana, os franceses seguraram o forte com sucesso, mesmo contra o ataque de 1758 liderado por James Abercromby com uma força cinco vezes maior que a dos defensores franceses do general Montcalm, até 1759. O general Jeffrey Amherst tomou o forte naquele ano e ele permaneceu uma possessão britânica até que Ethan Allen e seus Green Mountain Boys a tomaram em 1775.

Ticonderoga, ou 'Cheonderoga', é um nome iroquês ​​que significa "entre duas grandes águas". Há menos certeza quanto ao nome francês 'Carillon'. Embora sua tradução signifique 'carrilhão' ou 'repique' - que se refere ao som da água na saída do Lago George, também há especulação de que o nome foi derivado de um oficial francês chamado Philippe de Carrion. O oficial ergueu uma estrutura de toras no local como um posto de contrabando ao longo do corredor Albany-Montreal. Qualquer que seja a origem do nome, a estrutura sobreviveu como uma fortaleza francesa enquanto Montcalm sobreviveu como comandante francês na Nova França. Coube aos ingleses no mesmo ano que o marquês. O que os visitantes veem hoje é o forte restaurado, reconstruído sobre as ruínas do Carillon / Ticonderoga original.

Os restos mortais do forte George no campo de batalha do lago George.

(Foto cortesia de Sam Fruner)

No verão de 1759, dois anos após o cerco de Fort William Henry, o Major General Jeffrey Amherst, durante sua expedição ". Para fazer uma irrupção no Canadá com o máximo vigor e despacho" via Ticonderoga e Crown Point, chegou ao sul fim do Lago George. O general Amherst vinha construindo postos avançados fortificados a cada três ou seis quilômetros ao longo da estrada para o Forte Edward. Na colina onde o Coronel Monro fez o acampamento entrincheirado durante o cerco de 1957, Amherst começou a construção de um novo forte. Com a transferência dos que trabalhavam no forte para Crown Point, a construção foi necessariamente reduzida. Em 1760, Amherst descreveu o Forte George como um bastião que "possui 15 canhões, é muito pequeno e uma defesa ruim, mas foi o método mais curto, barato e melhor de terminar o que foi iniciado do Forte".

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Quem são os índios moicanos? (com foto)

Os índios moicanos, também chamados de índios Mahican, são uma tribo nativa da América originária do vale do rio Hudson. A casa original da tribo ficava ao longo do rio Delaware, que eles chamaram de Mahicannituck. Eles se chamavam de Muhheconneok, que se traduz nas pessoas das águas que nunca param. De acordo com a história oficial da tribo, antes de os europeus se estabelecerem na área, o território moicano se espalhou de norte a sul do Lago Champlain a Manhattan e de oeste a leste de Schoharie Creek em Nova York até Massachusetts, Vermont e Connecticut.

O contato europeu com os índios moicanos começou em 1609 quando um comerciante holandês chamado Henry Hudson viajou para o território. Os moicanos estabeleceram comércio com os holandeses no início, mas a área rapidamente se tornou volátil. Grande parte do conflito resultou de batalhas sobre o declínio do comércio de peles na área entre os moicanos e os mohawks, uma tribo indígena rival. Além disso, ambas as tribos se envolveriam em conflitos entre holandeses, ingleses e franceses.

No início de 1700, os Moicanos foram expulsos da área. Viajando para o leste ao longo do rio Hudson, eles finalmente se estabeleceram em áreas que se tornariam os estados de Massachusetts e Connecticut. Com a terra sendo tomada tanto pela tribo rival Mohawk quanto por nações europeias, os Moicanos passaram a depender mais dos bens dos europeus. Muitos também se voltaram para o cristianismo nessa época. Muitos desses moicanos, junto com membros de outras tribos indígenas americanas que se converteram ao cristianismo, encontraram seu lar na cidade de Stockbridge. Os índios desta cidade, que reside no que hoje é Massachusetts, lutaram lado a lado com as tropas europeias na Guerra Franco-Indígena e na Guerra Revolucionária Americana.

Com o tempo, o movimento constante, o conflito e as doenças mortais, como sarampo e varíola, trazidas pelos europeus, dizimaram os números de Moicanos. As forças restantes não foram suficientes para lutar contra os colonos, que mais tarde exigiram que as tribos indígenas deixassem Stockbridge, mesmo depois de ajudá-los a lutar contra os soldados britânicos durante a Guerra Revolucionária Americana. The Mohican Indians moved further west, eventually settling in what is now Wisconsin. Together with the Munsee Indians they make up the Stockbridge-Munsee Band of Mohican Indians, a large Native American reservation in Bowler, Wisconsin.

Mohican culture has left an indelible mark on Western civilization. In 1826, author James Fenimore Cooper published his book "The Last of the Mohicans," which has been adapted into film several times. A more recent sign of the tribe's influence is what the British call a "mohican" haircut, shaded on the sides with a stripe in the middle. Ironically, in the United States this haircut is called a mohawk, named after the Mohicans' rival tribe.


What is the Mohican Tribe? (with pictures)

The Mohican Tribe, also known as Mahican, is a band of American Indians currently based around Wisconsin. The tribe originally settled in the Hudson River Valley, spanning an area that today includes parts of Vermont, Connecticut, and upstate New York. Mohicans speak an American Indian language called Algonquin.

Before the arrival of white settlers, the Mohican tribe were hunter-gatherers. They lived in a richly wooded and wild area populated with otters, deer, black bears, wild turkeys, oysters, and fish. Men hunted for meat and fish, and women gathered wild rice, berries, and nuts. Women also smoked meat and fish to store and tended to gardens. During the long, cold winters, Mohicans told stories, made clay pots, and repaired their tools to prepare for spring.

The Mohican tribe first made contact with European settlers in 1609, when a Dutchman named Henry Hudson began exploring what would become known as the Hudson River. Hudson was intrigued by the Mohican's supply of beautiful furs. Word of the Mohican tribe's riches spread, and Dutch merchants established a trading post in the area in 1614. Thus began an infiltration of European culture that slowly eroded the traditional practices of the Mohican tribe.

Mohicans sold their furs for beads, tools, and guns. They stopped making traditional crafts. English merchants replaced Dutch traders, and began building fences and demarcating property lines in what had been open wilderness. Europeans also brought devastating diseases hundreds of thousands of Native Americans succumbed to smallpox, measles, and scarlet fever.

In 1738, a missionary named John Sergeant started a village named Stockbridge in the Mohican lands. He converted many Mohicans to Christianity. Mohican beliefs and customs continued to be replaced by European ones.

When the Revolutionary War broke out, the Mohicans agreed to fight for the colonists. The war brought them nothing but trouble, however, as fighting slowly encroached on their land. Mohican fighters returned to their territory, only to find it had been given over to white settlers.

After the war, the New York government ruled all Indians must be removed from their lands. The Mohicans then began a long migration westward, seeking a new home. The community broke up and scattered to Indiana, Kansas, and Oklahoma, but many Mohicans reformulated as the Stockbridge-Munsee Community and based themselves in Wisconsin.

Most people know the Mohican tribe from James Fenimore Cooper's book The Last of the Mohicans, which has been made into a movie several times. The Stockbridge-Munsee Mohican descendants point out, however, that their community has outlived the book's predictions. The tribe is "alive and thriving" in Northern Wisconsin.

On their reservation, the Mohican tribe runs a casino, a community center, and a golf course. The community also began a historical society in the 1970s to research and preserve Mohican history. They sponsor research trips back to the original Stockbridge village and preserve artifacts in the Arvid E. Miller library located on the reservation.


Mohican ScSlp - History

Age appropriateness: The Last of the Mohicans is officially rated "R" for violence in the United States. This violence is war-related, however, and not gratuitous. Check with your school's policy, but most teachers should not have problems showing this movie in class to high school students (the novel on which it is based is on many high school reading lists).

Creators and stars: Colm Meaney, Daniel Day-Lewis, David Schofield, Dennis Banks, Dylan Baker, Edward Blatchford, Eric D. Sandgren, Eric Schweig, James Fenimore Cooper, Jared Harris, Jodhi May, John L. Balderston, Justin M. Rice, Mac Andrews, Madeleine Stowe, Malcolm Storry, Mark A. Baker, Mark Joy, Michael Mann, Mike Phillips, Patrice Chereau, Pete Postlethwaite, Russell Means, Steven Waddington, Terry Kinney, Tim Hopper, Tracey Ellis, Wes Studi

Accuracy: The Last of the Mohicans is fairly close to the James Fenimore Cooper novel on which it is based. Differences between the novel/script and the historical record are detailed in the review below.

Review: The Last of the Mohicans is adapted from the James Fenimore Cooper novel (1826) of the same name. It is set in New York Province during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763, known as the French and Indian War in the United States). During this war, the English and French fought for control of lands in North America. More particularly, this film depicts the defense of Fort William Henry by Lt. Col. George Monro in 1757, and the ambush of his troops by Indian allies of the French that took place following his surrender.

Fictional elements of Cooper's story are created to explain why France's Indian allies attacked the English following their peaceful surrender. Falsehoods include the creation of two daughters for Monro (in fact, he is not known to ever even have married). The characters of Magua, Nathaniel (Hawkeye), Uncas, and Chingachgook are likewise fictional. The Mohicans (Mahicans) are real, and still exist today (you can check them out online aqui) The Mohicans depicted in this film may have been the last in New York at the time, since the group (affiliated with the Mohawk) had migrated southwest to Pennsylvania by the late 18th century due to the westward movement of white settlers. Furthermore, Lt. Col. Monro did not die during the ambush he passed away several months later of natural causes.

Despite its big budget, lavish production, and critical acclaim, "Last of the Mohicans" is littered with anachronisms and goofs, too many to list here. For those who enjoy looking for movie goofs, keep your eyes peeled for buses in the distance, telephone poles, and crew members in crowd scenes.


“The Last of the Mohicans” – Accuracy Report

Assessment Task Film Study “Last of the Mohicans” Question: “To what extent is the film ‘The Last of the Mohicans’ an accurate portrayal of historical events? ” “The last of the Mohicans”, the film, was based on a novel by James Fenemore Cooper. It is a fictional story set in an historical time. The movie is based on ‘The French and Indian War’ also known as ‘The 7 Year War’. The war started in 1756 and ended in 1763. The French and English were fighting each other for the land between their two settlements and the possession of America.

At the start of the movie, it tells you that the year is 1757, the third year of the war. But in fact 1757 was the second year of the war because the war started in 1756. This means that the third year of the war would have to have been 1758. The countries involved in the war were England and France plus the Native Americans (Huron, Ohawa and Mohawks). This was accurately portrayed in the film. The cause of conflict between the two countries was the fact that the English started to setting up farms in French Territory and the French weren’t to happy.

There had been conflict before the war but this was the strew that broke the camels back. Some Native American tribes decided to side with the countries fighting by making deals with them. The Mohawks decided to side with England but the Huron and the Ohawa tribes decided to fight with the French because the French had always been better to the Native Americans then the English had been. The locations and their names were accurate in the film. The three forts were Fort William Henry, Fort Edward and Alburney. They were all placed inside the fought over land between the French and English settlement.

“The Last of the Mohicans” Historical Accuracy

In the film there were three Military Leaders. These were General Webb (British), Colonel Munro (British) and General Montcalm (French). It is a historical fact that these three men did exist during this time. The movie’s terrain was accurate to what it was like back then. They were situated in the mountains with lots of tree cover which made it hard too fight because it gave the troops more places to hide and made it easy to ambush a moving party. The Costumes of the actors and actress were accurate to what they wear back in those times.

The Military wore the red coats with their black hats, black boots and black pants. The colonists were wearing everyday farming clothes that were worn and old and the Native Americans were wearing animal skins, feathers and strange hair styles as they did back then. The Native Americans used knives and spears as weapons, which were all hand made by their people like they would have been back then. The Troops and colonists used shoot guns, swords and those guns with the swords on the end, which would have been shipped over from England and France.

The weapons were accurate to those that would have been used back then. The Native Americans and France used a different style of fighting to what the English used. The English would just stand in line and fire, making it easy for them to be shot because they were not protected. Where as the French and Native Americans would hide behind trees, bushes, etc, and fire from were they where. This way the English wouldn’t know where they were and they had protection. We get to see in the movie that the Native Americans were very brutal in the way they killed people and they way they scalped their victims.

The English and French killed people as easily and quickly as possible. The Native Americans liked to make people suffer. But the Native Americans were more caring when it came to the way they respected the environment. Because they lived off the land, they respected the land and I tried to give back to the land. A good example of this in the film was at the start when they killed the dear. Once they had killed it, they prayed for it and thank it for giving them food to keep them alive.

They called it brother like it was part of their family. The British Army didn’t care much for the colonists. For all they were concerned, the colonists were there for their convenience. They were there to help them fight and win the war. That’s all they cared about. The colonists weren’t happy by this. They were promised by Munro that they could go help their families if they were under attack. But when this happened, Munro would not let them go. The colonists were extremely mad. They hated the British Army for this.

But the British Army and the colonists needed to stick together to fight the war. Otherwise they would not win. If they went their separate ways, they would not have enough power to defeat the French. The French were nice to the Native Americans when they first settled but when it came to the war, all they wanted was for them to fight for the French and they didn’t care about the rest of the deal they made with them. The English were the same but they had treated the Native Americans worse when they had settled, so not many Native Americans liked them.

At Fort William Henry, the English didn’t have enough man power to beat the French. With some of the colonist sneaking out to help their familles and no back up from Fort Edward, they had to surrender because they could not win. The French promised the English that they would become prisoners of war and would be safely lead back to Fort Edward were they could stay with their families and not be harmed. But the Native Americans didn’t like this. They were promised that they could kill the English and scalp them but the French went back on their word.

The Native Americans were extremely mad and ambushed the English Party while they were being escorted to Fort Edward. The Native Americans killed the English and the French and scalped them. Even though the movie was historical correct in most ways, there was still some fiction in it. It is true that there was an existence of a tribe called the Mohicans (later to disappear due to European settlement) but there is no proof that there was an existence of the three heroes (Nathaniel/Hawkeye, Uncas and Chingachcook) said to be the last of the Mohicans.

Munro didn’t send for his daughters in the middle of the war so they couldn’t have been any romance between the eldest daughter and Nathaniel. And finally, they portrayed the English to be the heroes and the French to be the villains, when really both of the countries were in the wrong so none of them were heroes. The film is an accurate portrayal of historical events, as long as you take out the main characters, the love story and the hero and villains aspect. Everything else is historically correct, from what they wore, to what the terrain was like, to the countries involved, to what weapons they used.


Bidwell Lore – Repatriating Stockbridge Mohican History One Document at a Time

Welcome to week 53 of Bidwell Lore! In our last email, I said that we would be moving on to a history of Monterey and Tyringham this week, but I want to postpone that series for one more week in order to share a Berkshire Eagle Op-Ed by our friend Rick Wilcox. In it he discusses a vote coming up to repatriate Stockbridge Mohican Proprietorship documents.

Repatriating Stockbridge Mohican History One Document at a Time

At the June 12th Annual Town Meeting Stockbridge residents will be asked to vote on the final resting place for three Stockbridge Mohican Proprietorship documents two of which were recently rescued from the “Old Town Hall” by Chris Marsden.

Although the Town Clerk’s Office and the Stockbridge Library Museum & Archives both harbor a number of primary source documents relating to the Stockbridge Mohican mission, the Stockbridge-Munsee Community Band of the Mohicans in Wisconsin do not possess a single document from their time in Stockbridge during the years 1737 to 1790. Hopefully the following narrative will help to provide a historical context for the documents.

On May 7, 1737 Jonathan Belcher, the colonial governor of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, issued a Charter for Indian Town on behalf of King George the Second, which was not to exceed six miles square, (36 square miles or 23,040 acres) encompassing land that is now the towns of Stockbridge and West Stockbridge. 1/60 of Indian Town or 384 acres was to be given to the Missionary the Rev. John Sergeant, 1/60 to Timothy Woodbridge, the school master and 1/60 to each of the four English families allowed to settle there, who were chosen to provide a Christian example for the Mohican families.

During the 18 th century in Massachusetts proprietorships were a common method for creating townships in the Berkshires. Those townships were created when members of the Stockbridge Mohican Tribe sold a tract of land to English colonists. The English colonizers in turn, after becoming proprietors of that plantation (unimproved land), would sell smaller tracts of land to individuals who wanted to live on the land. Indian Town was unique in that the Tribe was granted their plantation by Royal Charter and as such a proprietorship was not needed.

However, not long after Indian Town was incorporated into the Town of Stockbridge, English colonists began to obtain land through questionably legal transactions, or outright theft, causing the Sachems of the tribe to petition the Great and General Court of the Province for help. By June of 1750 the Provincial government created an Indian Proprietorship with the hope of protecting the Stockbridge Mohicans from further dispossession of their land. Although proprietorships were subject to Provincial and later Massachusetts State law, they were distinct entities and not a part of town government.

From shortly after the Indian Proprietorship was formed in 1750 until just weeks before his death on May 10 th , 1774, Timothy Woodbridge, the school master to the Indian Town Mission, acted at the request of the Stockbridge Mohicans as the clerk of the Indian Proprietorship.

On April 25 th, 1774, Woodbridge presided over his last Mohican Proprietorship meeting at William Goodrich’s inn. By a vote of the Tribal Sachems Timothy Woodbridge’s son Enoch Woodbridge was chosen as clerk of the Indian Proprietorship. William Goodrich and Samuel Brown, Jr. were chosen to take care of the Tribal “out lands”- that is land not yet distributed by the Proprietorship. That turned out to be only the first step in a move to control the land transfers from Mohican to English ownership.

The Stockbridge Mohicans trusted Timothy Woodbridge enough that they referred to him by the honorific Pai in one of their petitions to the colonial government. The Sachems’ relationship with Timothy Woodbridge may have caused them to believe that his son Enoch would be cut from the same cloth. Unfortunately, that was not the case. By May 30 th Enoch Woodbridge and Samuel Brown, Jr. were able to convince the proprietors to cede control of the daily business of the proprietorship and accept by vote the following language taken from the Indian Proprietor’s Records: “The Proprietors met according to adjournment and voted, chose, Constituted and appointed Samuel Brown Junr. Esq. Mr. Enoch Woodbridge Agents & Attorneys for said Proprietors.” The next two pages were filled with legalese, but the essence of the language enabled Enoch and Samuel to gain complete control of the distribution of land.

Likely the Sachems quickly learned that Enoch Woodbridge and Samuel Brown, Jr. were only concerned about acquiring land for themselves and other English colonists and yet it took six long years to undo their agreement. Following the legal requirements of the newly minted Commonwealth of Massachusetts they posted the following notice: A “Proprietors Meeting was called on Monday the 20 th Day of March 1780 at the house of Hendrick Ampaumut for the following Purposes (viz.) First To Chuse a Moderator for said Meeting 2ly To see if the Proprietors will chuse a New Clerk and Proceeded to pass the following Votes (viz.) First Voted and chose Jahleel Woodbridge Moderator. 6ly Voted and Chose Jahleel Woodbridge Esq. Clerk and he was sworn according to law.”

That six years passed before the Indian Proprietors were able to untangle themselves from their arrangement with Enoch Woodbridge and Samuel Brown probably speaks to their inability to find someone they could trust and who would be willing to help undo that agreement. Enoch’s cousin Jahleel Woodbridge seemed to fit that need. Not long after the Tribal Sachems chose Jahleel as clerk in 1780, following legal protocol, they requested a meeting of the proprietors by writing a letter to the clerk. That short letter, which follows, is one of the three documents that Stockbridge residents will vote on at the Annual Town Meeting:

“To Jahleel Woodbridge Esqr.
Sir. We the subscribers request you call a meeting of the Indian Proprietors to examine into the power given here to fore to certain persons as agents for said proprietors, to see how they exercise said power and whether it is expedient to continue or revoke the same, and to do any other business that may thus come under our consideration. Joseph Shauquethquat, Hendrick Aupaumut, Jehoiakim Naunuptonk, John Concopott (Konkapot), Jacob Concopott (Konkapot), Peter Pohqunnoppeet, Andrew Waumauhewhy, Joseph Quennukaut, Billy Notuaqssin, David Naunauneeknuk,”

The second document, likely penned by Jahleel Woodbridge, appears to be a rough draft for meeting minutes that would later be included in the Indian Proprietor Records. Those words either never made it into the Indian Proprietor Records, or they are among “missing” or later destroyed records that were part of the 8,000 acres unaccounted for in the final dispossession of the 23,040 acres making up Indian Town. The third document, the Indian Proprietor Records, contains all of the land grants issued to the members of the tribe by the Mohican proprietors of Stockbridge between 1750 and 1790.

By 1780 the Mohicans were largely dispossessed of their land in Stockbridge and West Stockbridge and by 1783 they began their journey west into New York State to land given to them by the Oneida, walking some 160 miles to New Stockbridge, New York.

Today the Stockbridge-Munsee Community Band of the Mohicans, in their ever-diplomatic way, represent their journey to a new home in Wisconsin using a “many trails” symbol. However, not unlike other Tribes, it was in reality a Trail of Tears. Today they are a thriving community with a deep interest in the history of their homeland, many of whom are direct descendants of the Sachems who signed the above letter. The repatriation of these documents and their arrival in Wisconsin will hopefully be a cause for tears of joy as another piece of Mohican history is reunited with its people.


Lit 2 Go

Cooper, James Fenimore. "Chapter 3." The Last of the Mohicans. Lit2Go Edition. 1826. Web. https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/26/the-last-of-the-mohicans/237/chapter-3/ >. June 20, 2021.

James Fenimore Cooper, "Chapter 3," The Last of the Mohicans, Lit2Go Edition, (1826), accessed June 20, 2021, https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/26/the-last-of-the-mohicans/237/chapter-3/ .

&ldquoBefore these fields were shorn and till&rsquod,
Full to the brim our rivers flow&rsquod
The melody of waters fill&rsquod
The fresh and boundless wood
And torrents dash&rsquod, and rivulets play&rsquod,
And fountains spouted in the shade.&rdquo
&mdashBryant

Leaving the unsuspecting Heyward and his confiding companions to penetrate still deeper into a forest that contained such treacherous inmates, we must use an author&rsquos privilege, and shift the scene a few miles to the westward of the place where we have last seen them.

On that day, two men were lingering on the banks of a small but rapid stream, within an hour&rsquos journey of the encampment of Webb, like those who awaited the appearance of an absent person, or the approach of some expected event. The vast canopy of woods spread itself to the margin of the river, overhanging the water, and shadowing its dark current with a deeper hue. The rays of the sun were beginning to grow less fierce, and the intense heat of the day was lessened, as the cooler vapors of the springs and fountains rose above their leafy beds, and rested in the atmosphere. Still that breathing silence, which marks the drowsy sultriness of an American landscape in July, pervaded the secluded spot, interrupted only by the low voices of the men, the occasional and lazy tap of a woodpecker, the discordant cry of some gaudy jay, or a swelling on the ear, from the dull roar of a distant waterfall. These feeble and broken sounds were, however, too familiar to the foresters to draw their attention from the more interesting matter of their dialogue. While one of these loiterers showed the red skin and wild accouterments of a native of the woods, the other exhibited, through the mask of his rude and nearly savage equipments, the brighter, though sun-burned and long-faced complexion of one who might claim descent from a European parentage. The former was seated on the end of a mossy log, in a posture that permitted him to heighten the effect of his earnest language, by the calm but expressive gestures of an Indian engaged in debate. His body, which was nearly naked, presented a terrific emblem of death, drawn in intermingled colors of white and black. His closely-shaved head, on which no other hair than the well-known and chivalrous scalping tuft was preserved, was without ornament of any kind, with the exception of a solitary eagle&rsquos plume, that crossed his crown, and depended over the left shoulder. A tomahawk and scalping knife, of English manufacture, were in his girdle while a short military rifle, of that sort with which the policy of the whites armed their savage allies, lay carelessly across his bare and sinewy knee. The expanded chest, full formed limbs, and grave countenance of this warrior, would denote that he had reached the vigor of his days, though no symptoms of decay appeared to have yet weakened his manhood.

The North American warrior caused the hair to be plucked from his whole body a small tuft was left on the crown of his head, in order that his enemy might avail himself of it, in wrenching off the scalp in the event of his fall. The scalp was the only admissible trophy of victory. Thus, it was deemed more important to obtain the scalp than to kill the man. Some tribes lay great stress on the honor of striking a dead body. These practices have nearly disappeared among the Indians of the Atlantic states.

The frame of the white man, judging by such parts as were not concealed by his clothes, was like that of one who had known hardships and exertion from his earliest youth. His person, though muscular, was rather attenuated than full but every nerve and muscle appeared strung and indurated by unremitted exposure and toil. He wore a hunting shirt of forest-green, fringed with faded yellow, and a summer cap of skins which had been shorn of their fur. He also bore a knife in a girdle of wampum, like that which confined the scanty garments of the Indian, but no tomahawk. His moccasins were ornamented after the gay fashion of the natives, while the only part of his under dress which appeared below the hunting-frock was a pair of buckskin leggings, that laced at the sides, and which were gartered above the knees, with the sinews of a deer. A pouch and horn completed his personal accouterments, though a rifle of great length, which the theory of the more ingenious whites had taught them was the most dangerous of all firearms, leaned against a neighboring sapling. The eye of the hunter, or scout, whichever he might be, was small, quick, keen, and restless, roving while he spoke, on every side of him, as if in quest of game, or distrusting the sudden approach of some lurking enemy. Notwithstanding the symptoms of habitual suspicion, his countenance was not only without guile, but at the moment at which he is introduced, it was charged with an expression of sturdy honesty.

The hunting-shirt is a picturesque smock-frock, being shorter, and ornamented with fringes and tassels. The colors are intended to imitate the hues of the wood, with a view to concealment. Many corps of American riflemen have been thus attired, and the dress is one of the most striking of modern times. The hunting-shirt is frequently white. The rifle of the army is short that of the hunter is always long.

&ldquoEven your traditions make the case in my favor, Chingachgook,&rdquo he said, speaking in the tongue which was known to all the natives who formerly inhabited the country between the Hudson and the Potomac, and of which we shall give a free translation for the benefit of the reader endeavoring, at the same time, to preserve some of the peculiarities, both of the individual and of the language. &ldquoYour fathers came from the setting sun, crossed the big river, fought the people of the country, and took the land and mine came from the red sky of the morning, over the salt lake, and did their work much after the fashion that had been set them by yours then let God judge the matter between us, and friends spare their words!&rdquo

The Mississippi. The scout alludes to a tradition which is very popular among the tribes of the Atlantic states. Evidence of their Asiatic origin is deduced from the circumstances, though great uncertainty hangs over the whole history of the Indians.

&ldquoMy fathers fought with the naked red man!&rdquo returned the Indian, sternly, in the same language. &ldquoIs there no difference, Hawkeye, between the stone-headed arrow of the warrior, and the leaden bullet with which you kill?&rdquo

&ldquoThere is reason in an Indian, though nature has made him with a red skin!&rdquo said the white man, shaking his head like one on whom such an appeal to his justice was not thrown away. For a moment he appeared to be conscious of having the worst of the argument, then, rallying again, he answered the objection of his antagonist in the best manner his limited information would allow:

&ldquoI am no scholar, and I care not who knows it but, judging from what I have seen, at deer chases and squirrel hunts, of the sparks below, I should think a rifle in the hands of their grandfathers was not so dangerous as a hickory bow and a good flint-head might be, if drawn with Indian judgment, and sent by an Indian eye.&rdquo

&ldquoYou have the story told by your fathers,&rdquo returned the other, coldly waving his hand. &ldquoWhat say your old men? Do they tell the young warriors that the pale faces met the red men, painted for war and armed with the stone hatchet and wooden gun?&rdquo

&ldquoI am not a prejudiced man, nor one who vaunts himself on his natural privileges, though the worst enemy I have on earth, and he is an Iroquois, daren&rsquot deny that I am genuine white,&rdquo the scout replied, surveying, with secret satisfaction, the faded color of his bony and sinewy hand, &ldquoand I am willing to own that my people have many ways, of which, as an honest man, I can&rsquot approve. It is one of their customs to write in books what they have done and seen, instead of telling them in their villages, where the lie can be given to the face of a cowardly boaster, and the brave soldier can call on his comrades to witness for the truth of his words. In consequence of this bad fashion, a man, who is too conscientious to misspend his days among the women, in learning the names of black marks, may never hear of the deeds of his fathers, nor feel a pride in striving to outdo them. For myself, I conclude the Bumppos could shoot, for I have a natural turn with a rifle, which must have been handed down from generation to generation, as, our holy commandments tell us, all good and evil gifts are bestowed though I should be loath to answer for other people in such a matter. But every story has its two sides so I ask you, Chingachgook, what passed, according to the traditions of the red men, when our fathers first met?&rdquo

A silence of a minute succeeded, during which the Indian sat mute then, full of the dignity of his office, he commenced his brief tale, with a solemnity that served to heighten its appearance of truth.

&ldquoListen, Hawkeye, and your ear shall drink no lie. &lsquoTis what my fathers have said, and what the Mohicans have done.&rdquo He hesitated a single instant, and bending a cautious glance toward his companion, he continued, in a manner that was divided between interrogation and assertion. &ldquoDoes not this stream at our feet run toward the summer, until its waters grow salt, and the current flows upward?&rdquo

&ldquoIt can&rsquot be denied that your traditions tell you true in both these matters,&rdquo said the white man &ldquofor I have been there, and have seen them, though why water, which is so sweet in the shade, should become bitter in the sun, is an alteration for which I have never been able to account.&rdquo

&ldquoAnd the current!&rdquo demanded the Indian, who expected his reply with that sort of interest that a man feels in the confirmation of testimony, at which he marvels even while he respects it &ldquothe fathers of Chingachgook have not lied!&rdquo

&ldquoThe holy Bible is not more true, and that is the truest thing in nature. They call this up-stream current the tide, which is a thing soon explained, and clear enough. Six hours the waters run in, and six hours they run out, and the reason is this: when there is higher water in the sea than in the river, they run in until the river gets to be highest, and then it runs out again.&rdquo

&ldquoThe waters in the woods, and on the great lakes, run downward until they lie like my hand,&rdquo said the Indian, stretching the limb horizontally before him, &ldquoand then they run no more.&rdquo

&ldquoNo honest man will deny it,&rdquo said the scout, a little nettled at the implied distrust of his explanation of the mystery of the tides &ldquoand I grant that it is true on the small scale, and where the land is level. But everything depends on what scale you look at things. Now, on the small scale, the &lsquoarth is level but on the large scale it is round. In this manner, pools and ponds, and even the great fresh-water lakes, may be stagnant, as you and I both know they are, having seen them but when you come to spread water over a great tract, like the sea, where the earth is round, how in reason can the water be quiet? You might as well expect the river to lie still on the brink of those black rocks a mile above us, though your own ears tell you that it is tumbling over them at this very moment.&rdquo

If unsatisfied by the philosophy of his companion, the Indian was far too dignified to betray his unbelief. He listened like one who was convinced, and resumed his narrative in his former solemn manner.

&ldquoWe came from the place where the sun is hid at night, over great plains where the buffaloes live, until we reached the big river. There we fought the Alligewi, till the ground was red with their blood. From the banks of the big river to the shores of the salt lake, there was none to meet us. The Maquas followed at a distance. We said the country should be ours from the place where the water runs up no longer on this stream, to a river twenty sun&rsquos journey toward the summer. We drove the Maquas into the woods with the bears. They only tasted salt at the licks they drew no fish from the great lake we threw them the bones.&rdquo

&ldquoAll this I have heard and believe,&rdquo said the white man, observing that the Indian paused &ldquobut it was long before the English came into the country.&rdquo

&ldquoA pine grew then where this chestnut now stands. The first pale faces who came among us spoke no English. They came in a large canoe, when my fathers had buried the tomahawk with the red men around them. Then, Hawkeye,&rdquo he continued, betraying his deep emotion, only by permitting his voice to fall to those low, guttural tones, which render his language, as spoken at times, so very musical &ldquothen, Hawkeye, we were one people, and we were happy. The salt lake gave us its fish, the wood its deer, and the air its birds. We took wives who bore us children we worshipped the Great Spirit and we kept the Maquas beyond the sound of our songs of triumph.&rdquo

&ldquoKnow you anything of your own family at that time?&rdquo demanded the white. &ldquoBut you are just a man, for an Indian and as I suppose you hold their gifts, your fathers must have been brave warriors, and wise men at the council-fire.&rdquo

&ldquoMy tribe is the grandfather of nations, but I am an unmixed man. The blood of chiefs is in my veins, where it must stay forever. The Dutch landed, and gave my people the fire-water they drank until the heavens and the earth seemed to meet, and they foolishly thought they had found the Great Spirit. Then they parted with their land. Foot by foot, they were driven back from the shores, until I, that am a chief and a Sagamore, have never seen the sun shine but through the trees, and have never visited the graves of my fathers.&rdquo

&ldquoGraves bring solemn feelings over the mind,&rdquo returned the scout, a good deal touched at the calm suffering of his companion &ldquoand they often aid a man in his good intentions though, for myself, I expect to leave my own bones unburied, to bleach in the woods, or to be torn asunder by the wolves. But where are to be found those of your race who came to their kin in the Delaware country, so many summers since?&rdquo

&ldquoWhere are the blossoms of those summers!&mdashfallen, one by one so all of my family departed, each in his turn, to the land of spirits. I am on the hilltop and must go down into the valley and when Uncas follows in my footsteps there will no longer be any of the blood of the Sagamores, for my boy is the last of the Mohicans.&rdquo

&ldquoUncas is here,&rdquo said another voice, in the same soft, guttural tones, near his elbow &ldquowho speaks to Uncas?&rdquo

The white man loosened his knife in his leathern sheath, and made an involuntary movement of the hand toward his rifle, at this sudden interruption but the Indian sat composed, and without turning his head at the unexpected sounds.

At the next instant, a youthful warrior passed between them, with a noiseless step, and seated himself on the bank of the rapid stream. No exclamation of surprise escaped the father, nor was any question asked, or reply given, for several minutes each appearing to await the moment when he might speak, without betraying womanish curiosity or childish impatience. The white man seemed to take counsel from their customs, and, relinquishing his grasp of the rifle, he also remained silent and reserved. At length Chingachgook turned his eyes slowly toward his son, and demanded:

&ldquoDo the Maquas dare to leave the print of their moccasins in these woods?&rdquo

&ldquoI have been on their trail,&rdquo replied the young Indian, &ldquoand know that they number as many as the fingers of my two hands but they lie hid like cowards.&rdquo

&ldquoThe thieves are outlying for scalps and plunder,&rdquo said the white man, whom we shall call Hawkeye, after the manner of his companions. &ldquoThat busy Frenchman, Montcalm, will send his spies into our very camp, but he will know what road we travel!&rdquo

&rdquo&rsquoTis enough,&rdquo returned the father, glancing his eye toward the setting sun &ldquothey shall be driven like deer from their bushes. Hawkeye, let us eat to-night, and show the Maquas that we are men to-morrow.&rdquo

&ldquoI am as ready to do the one as the other but to fight the Iroquois &lsquotis necessary to find the skulkers and to eat, &lsquotis necessary to get the game&mdashtalk of the devil and he will come there is a pair of the biggest antlers I have seen this season, moving the bushes below the hill! Now, Uncas,&rdquo he continued, in a half whisper, and laughing with a kind of inward sound, like one who had learned to be watchful, &ldquoI will bet my charger three times full of powder, against a foot of wampum, that I take him atwixt the eyes, and nearer to the right than to the left.&rdquo

&ldquoIt cannot be!&rdquo said the young Indian, springing to his feet with youthful eagerness &ldquoall but the tips of his horns are hid!&rdquo

&ldquoHe&rsquos a boy!&rdquo said the white man, shaking his head while he spoke, and addressing the father. &ldquoDoes he think when a hunter sees a part of the creature&rsquo, he can&rsquot tell where the rest of him should be!&rdquo

Adjusting his rifle, he was about to make an exhibition of that skill on which he so much valued himself, when the warrior struck up the piece with his hand, saying:

&ldquoHawkeye! will you fight the Maquas?&rdquo

&ldquoThese Indians know the nature of the woods, as it might be by instinct!&rdquo returned the scout, dropping his rifle, and turning away like a man who was convinced of his error. &ldquoI must leave the buck to your arrow, Uncas, or we may kill a deer for them thieves, the Iroquois, to eat.&rdquo

The instant the father seconded this intimation by an expressive gesture of the hand, Uncas threw himself on the ground, and approached the animal with wary movements. When within a few yards of the cover, he fitted an arrow to his bow with the utmost care, while the antlers moved, as if their owner snuffed an enemy in the tainted air. In another moment the twang of the cord was heard, a white streak was seen glancing into the bushes, and the wounded buck plunged from the cover, to the very feet of his hidden enemy. Avoiding the horns of the infuriated animal, Uncas darted to his side, and passed his knife across the throat, when bounding to the edge of the river it fell, dyeing the waters with its blood.

&rdquo&rsquoTwas done with Indian skill,&rdquo said the scout laughing inwardly, but with vast satisfaction &ldquoand &lsquotwas a pretty sight to behold! Though an arrow is a near shot, and needs a knife to finish the work.&rdquo

&ldquoHugh!&rdquo ejaculated his companion, turning quickly, like a hound who scented game.

&ldquoBy the Lord, there is a drove of them!&rdquo exclaimed the scout, whose eyes began to glisten with the ardor of his usual occupation &ldquoif they come within range of a bullet I will drop one, though the whole Six Nations should be lurking within sound! What do you hear, Chingachgook? for to my ears the woods are dumb.&rdquo

&ldquoThere is but one deer, and he is dead,&rdquo said the Indian, bending his body till his ear nearly touched the earth. &ldquoI hear the sounds of feet!&rdquo

&ldquoPerhaps the wolves have driven the buck to shelter, and are following on his trail.&rdquo

&ldquoNo. The horses of white men are coming!&rdquo returned the other, raising himself with dignity, and resuming his seat on the log with his former composure. &ldquoHawkeye, they are your brothers speak to them.&rdquo

&ldquoThat I will, and in English that the king needn&rsquot be ashamed to answer,&rdquo returned the hunter, speaking in the language of which he boasted &ldquobut I see nothing, nor do I hear the sounds of man or beast &lsquotis strange that an Indian should understand white sounds better than a man who, his very enemies will own, has no cross in his blood, although he may have lived with the red skins long enough to be suspected! Ha! there goes something like the cracking of a dry stick, too&mdashnow I hear the bushes move&mdashyes, yes, there is a trampling that I mistook for the falls&mdashand&mdashbut here they come themselves God keep them from the Iroquois!&rdquo

This collection of children's literature is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse and is funded by various grants.


História

It started with a dream and a love of European castles. During a two-year tour in Europe, now retired Army Veteran, Jim Landoll vowed to himself that if he ever made enough money, in his life, he would build a castle in America. But before he could start on a castle, this young entrepreneur had other plans.

With only $5.00 in his pocket, he founded The Landoll Publishing Company in the early 1970’s. With help from his wife, Marta, and her brother, Marty, 1996 business sales were $100 million and considered to be the second largest printer and publisher of children’s books in America. The company employed over 1,000 people. In 1997, The Landoll Publishing Company was sold and thus began the construction and realization of Landoll’s Mohican Castle.

Originally, the castle was going to be an elaborate barn that looked like a castle. Late 1999, Marta convinced her husband to turn the castle into a hotel. Jim and Marta wanted to share this dream with the world. With no floor plans or blueprints, Landoll’s Mohican Castle was literally created one room at a time.

In the mid 1990’s there was a terrible storm. Many trees had fallen during this storm. The Ross Suite became a sawmill and all the castle’s hardwood flooring, trim, cabinetry, and doors were milled from trees on the property. Even the stone, on the castle, came from stone piles on the property, cleared by the earliest settlers of the area.

Landoll’s Mohican Castle opened, to the public in 2002. Sitting on 30 acres, the castle sits at 1,200 feet. Technically, it is a mountain.

Jim Landoll, officially retired from the castle in 2007. Marta has taken over and has been in charge ever since. Jimmy Landoll, their son, took over as general manager in 2015. Marta is now the Chief Financial Officer.

In the summer of 2015, the producers of Gordon Ramsay’s TV shows reached out to the Landoll family asking them to be part of one of Gordon’s shows “Hotel Hell.” While reluctant about participating, Gordon and his team spent 10 days putting everyone through the wringer. (Gordon stay in Suite 9, the Thering Suite.) Landoll’s Mohican Castle’s episode was the season finale and viewed by over 20 million people.

Since the show aired in 2016, the castle is doing better than ever. Landoll’s Mohican Castle is quick to credit Gordon and his team for the turn around. Gordon Ramsay, ligou para o gerente geral Jimmy Landoll após o show e disse a ele que o Castelo Moicano de Landoll é o símbolo do motivo pelo qual ele continua a fazer esses shows. Gordon continua fazendo check-in com Jimmy e prometeu voltar.

A história do Landoll Mohican Castle continua. A inovação começou em dezembro de 2017, para The Stables. The Stable Suites foi inaugurado oficialmente em agosto de 2018, adicionando 14 suítes adicionais.


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