Linha do tempo Brundisium

Linha do tempo Brundisium


Linha do tempo Spartacus

Fatos rápidos e informações por meio da linha do tempo da Spartacus
O conteúdo deste artigo fornece história, fatos e informações interessantes por meio da Linha do tempo Spartacus.

História, fatos e informações por meio da linha do tempo de Spartacus *** Informações interessantes por meio da linha do tempo de Spartacus - Visão geral da história e cronologia de Roma *** Linha do tempo de Spartacus *** Cronologia de nomes-chave, datas-chave, pessoas-chave e eventos-chave no História Linha do tempo de Spartacus *** História romana com a linha do tempo de Spartacus contendo cronologia interessante de fatos, datas e informações *** Cronologias de datas importantes, história, fatos e informações *** Detalhes rápidos e precisos através da linha do tempo do Reino de Roma - Pessoas famosas, lugares famosos e eventos famosos


Conteúdo

O pai de Libo com o mesmo nome era o pretor, ou principal oficial do judiciário, em 80 aC, e sua mãe era Cornelia Sulla - filha de Pompeia Magna (e também a neta de Pompeu, o Grande) e seu primeiro marido, Faustus Cornelius Sulla, o único filho do ditador Sulla. & # 911 & # 93 & # 912 & # 93 & # 913 & # 93 & # 914 & # 93

Libo era membro da família Scribonia, que era plebéia, e não membro da elite governante. Ele estava intimamente ligado à família de Pompeu por meio de sua avó Pompeia Magna. Os laços foram fortalecidos em 55 aC depois que o filho de Pompeu, Sexto Pompeu, se casou com a filha de Libo, Escribônia. & # 915 & # 93 Presume-se que Libo chegou ao cargo de pretor por volta de 50 aC. & # 916 e # 93

Em 50 aC, o Senado, liderado por Pompeu, ordenou ao político populista e general Júlio César que dissolvesse seu exército e retornasse a Roma porque seu mandato como governador havia terminado. & # 917 & # 93 César pensou que seria processado se entrasse em Roma sem a imunidade de que goza um magistrado. Em 10 de janeiro de 49 aC César cruzou o rio Rubicão e iniciou a Guerra Civil de César. Ele marchou rapidamente sobre Roma e o capturou. Pompeu e a maior parte do Senado fugiram para a Grécia. Libo foi nomeado um dos legados de Pompeu, uma posição militar de alto escalão, e recebeu o comando da Etrúria. & # 918 e # 93

Depois que Libo foi expulso da Etrúria por Marco Antônio, ele assumiu o comando dos novos recrutas na Campânia de Ampius Balbus. & # 919 & # 93 Ele então acompanhou Pompeu durante sua retirada para Brundísio, e lá ele agiu como intermediário de Pompeu com Caio Canínio Rebilo, um amigo pessoal próximo, que havia recebido de Júlio César a tarefa de negociar com Pompeu. & # 9110 & # 93 Rebilus aconselhou Libo que se ele pudesse convencer Pompeu a chegar a um acordo com César, César daria crédito a Libo por interromper a guerra civil antes que ela começasse de verdade. Embora Libo tenha relatado as propostas de César, Pompeu disse a Libo que não poderia concordar com nada sem a presença dos cônsules. & # 9111 & # 93

Seguindo Pompeu à Macedônia, Libo foi colocado no comando de parte da frota de Pompeu ao lado de Marco Otávio, com instruções para evitar que as forças de César cruzassem, se possível. & # 9112 & # 93 Ao largo da costa da Dalmácia, eles derrotaram uma frota sob o comando de Publius Cornelius Dolabella. Eles seguiram derrotando Gaius Antonius, que tentou ajudar Dolabella, e que foi forçado a fugir para Corcyra Nigra. Com falta de suprimentos, ele logo se rendeu a Libo, que o levou com suas tropas para Pompeu. & # 9113 & # 93 Quando César desembarcou no Épiro e tomou Oricum, Pompeu tinha enviado Libo para se juntar a Marco Calpúrnio Bíbulo, que estava no comando da frota de Pompeu e bloqueava César em Oricum, mas que estava doente e não conseguia se recuperar suprimentos. & # 9114 & # 93 Para quebrar o impasse, Bibulus e Libo navegaram em direção a Oricum e pediram uma trégua para negociar com César. César concordou e Libo tentou enganar César fazendo-o pensar que eles estavam agindo sob as instruções de Pompeu. & # 9115 & # 93 Quando César não conseguiu fazer com que Libo concordasse em dar salvo-conduto aos enviados de César, César concluiu que as negociações eram uma farsa para permitir que Bibulus reabastecesse seus navios e, portanto, recusou-se a estender a trégua e interrompeu as negociações. & # 9116 & # 93

Com a morte de Bibulus no início de 48 AC, Libo recebeu o comando da frota de Pompeu, composta por cerca de cinquenta galés. & # 9117 & # 93 Ele continuou bloqueando Oricum, mas chegou à conclusão de que, se pudesse isolar Brundisium do mar, poderia isolar César dos reforços e redistribuir a frota para outro lugar. Partindo para Brundisium, ele pegou o comandante local, Marco Antônio, despreparado. Libo queimou vários navios de armazenamento, capturou um cheio de grãos e desembarcou tropas na ilha que comandava a entrada do porto, expulsando um esquadrão das tropas de Antônio no processo. Confiante no sucesso, ele enviou uma carta a Pompeu, informando-o de que havia assegurado o porto e que o resto da frota deveria ser consertado e descansado. & # 9118 & # 93 Antônio, no entanto, conseguiu enganar Libo para que perseguisse alguns navios chamariz, fazendo com que o esquadrão de Libo fosse atacado. A maior parte da frota de Libo conseguiu escapar, mas as tropas que ele desembarcou na ilha foram presas e capturadas. & # 9119 & # 93


Guerra Civil [editar]

Cruzando o Rubicão [editar |

Em 10 de janeiro de 9952, comandando a Legio XIII, César cruzou o rio Rubicão, limite entre a província da Gália Cisalpina ao norte e a própria Itália ao sul. Como cruzar o Rubicão com um exército era proibido, para que um general não voltasse a tentar um golpe de estado, isso desencadeou a guerra civil que se seguiu entre César e Pompeu.

A população em geral, que considerava César um herói, aprovou suas ações. Os registros históricos diferem sobre qual comentário decisivo César fez sobre a travessia do Rubicão: um relatório é Alea iacta est (geralmente traduzido como "A sorte está lançada").

O próprio relato de César sobre a Guerra Civil não faz menção à travessia do rio e, em vez disso, simplesmente afirma que ele marchou para Rimini, uma cidade ao sul do Rubicão, com seu exército. & # 913 & # 93

Marcha em Roma e no início da campanha hispânica [editar |

A marcha de César sobre Roma foi uma procissão triunfal. O Senado, sem saber que César possuía apenas uma legião, temeu o pior e apoiou Pompeu. Pompeu declarou que Roma não poderia ser defendida, ele fugiu para Cápua com os políticos que o apoiavam, os aristocratas Optimates e os cônsules reinantes. Cícero mais tarde caracterizou o "sinal externo de fraqueza" de Pompeu como permitindo a consolidação do poder de César.

Apesar de ter recuado para o centro da Itália, Pompeu e as forças senatoriais eram compostas por pelo menos duas legiões: cerca de 11.500 soldados e algumas tropas italianas levadas às pressas comandadas por Lúcio Domício Enobarbo. À medida que César avançava para o sul, Pompeu recuou em direção a Brundísio, inicialmente ordenando a Domício (engajado em levantar tropas na Etrúria) que parasse o movimento de César em Roma na direção do litoral do Adriático.

Tardiamente, Pompeu pediu a Domício que recuasse para o sul também e se encontrasse com as forças de Pompeu. Domício ignorou o pedido de Pompeu e, depois de ficar isolado e preso perto de Corfínio, foi forçado a render seu exército de trinta e uma coortes (cerca de três legiões). Com clemência deliberada, César libertou Domício e os outros senadores com ele e até devolveu 6.000.000 de sestércios que Domício teve de pagar às suas tropas. As trinta e uma coortes, no entanto, fizeram um novo juramento de lealdade a César e foram enviadas para a Sicília sob o comando de Asinius Pólio. & # 914 e # 93

Pompeu fugiu para Brundísio, onde aguardava o transporte marítimo de suas legiões, para Épiro, nas províncias gregas orientais da República, esperando que sua influência rendesse dinheiro e exércitos para um bloqueio marítimo da própria Itália. Enquanto isso, os aristocratas - incluindo Metelo Cipião e Cato, o Jovem - juntaram-se a Pompeu ali, enquanto deixavam uma retaguarda em Cápua.

César perseguiu Pompeu até Brundísio, esperando a restauração de sua aliança de dez anos antes durante os primeiros estágios da Grande Guerra Civil Romana. César freqüentemente propunha a Pompeu que eles, ambos generais, embainhassem suas espadas. Pompeu recusou, argumentando legalisticamente que César era seu subordinado e, portanto, era obrigado a interromper a campanha e demitir seus exércitos antes de qualquer negociação. Como comandante escolhido pelo Senado, e com o apoio de pelo menos um dos cônsules atuais, Pompeu comandava a legitimidade, enquanto a travessia militar de César do Rubicão lhe rendeu um de jure inimigo do Senado e do Povo de Roma. César então tentou prender Pompeu em Brundisium bloqueando a entrada do porto com toupeiras de terra de ambos os lados, unidas na parte mais profunda por uma série de jangadas, cada uma com nove metros quadrados, cobertas por uma passagem de terra e protegidas por telas e torres. Pompeu reagiu construindo torres para a artilharia pesada em vários navios mercantes e as usou para destruir as jangadas à medida que flutuavam em posição. Eventualmente, em março de 9952, Pompeu escapou, fugindo por mar para o Épiro, deixando César no comando completo da Itália. & # 915 e # 93

Aproveitando a ausência de Pompeu do continente italiano, César efetuou uma marcha forçada surpreendentemente rápida de 27 dias rumo ao norte para destruir, na Batalha de Ilerda, o exército de Pompeu politicamente sem líder da Hispânia, comandado pelos legados Lúcio Afrânio e Marco Petério , depois de pacificar a Hispânia romana durante a campanha, as forças cesarianas - seis legiões, 3.000 cavalaria (veteranos da campanha gaulesa) e o guarda-costas pessoal de César com 900 cavalos - sofreram apenas 70 homens mortos em combate, enquanto as baixas de Pompeu totalizaram 200 homens mortos e 600 ferido.

Retornando a Roma em dezembro de 9952, César foi nomeado ditador, com Marco Antônio como seu Mestre do Cavalo. César manteve sua ditadura por onze dias, mandato suficiente para ganhar um segundo mandato como cônsul, com Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus como seu colega. Posteriormente, César renovou sua perseguição a Pompeu na Grécia.

Campanhas grega, ilíria e africana [editar |

De Brundisium, César cruzou o Estreito de Otranto com sete legiões até o Golfo de Valona (não Palaesta no Épiro [moderno Palase / Dhermi, Albânia], conforme relatado por Lucan), & # 916 & # 93 levando Pompeu a considerar três cursos de ação : (i) fazer uma aliança com o Rei da Pártia, um antigo aliado, no extremo leste (ii) para invadir a Itália com sua marinha superior e / ou (iii) para forçar uma batalha decisiva com César. Uma aliança parta não era viável: um general romano lutando contra legiões romanas com tropas estrangeiras era covarde e o risco militar de uma invasão italiana era politicamente desagradável, porque os italianos (que trinta anos antes haviam se rebelado contra Roma) poderiam se levantar contra ele. Assim, a conselho de seus conselheiros, Pompeu decidiu arquitetar uma batalha decisiva. & # 91 citação necessária ]

Como se viu, Pompeu teria sido obrigado a tomar a terceira opção de qualquer maneira, já que César forçou sua mão ao persegui-lo até a Ilíria. Assim, em 10 de julho de 9953, os dois lutaram na Batalha de Dirráquio. Com a perda de 1.000 legionários veteranos, César foi forçado a recuar para o sul. Recusando-se a acreditar que seu exército havia superado as legiões de César, Pompeu interpretou erroneamente a retirada como uma finta para uma armadilha, e não perseguiu para entregar o decisivo golpe de misericórdia, perdendo assim a iniciativa e a chance de concluir rapidamente a guerra. Perto de Farsala, César montou um acampamento estratégico. Pompeu atacou, mas, apesar de seu exército muito maior, foi derrotado definitivamente pelas tropas de César. Um dos principais motivos para a derrota de Pompeu foi uma falha de comunicação entre os cavaleiros da cavalaria da frente.

Luta dinástica egípcia [editar |

Pompeu fugiu para o Egito, onde foi assassinado por um oficial do rei Ptolomeu XIII. César perseguiu o exército de Pompeu até Alexandria, onde acampou e se envolveu na Guerra Civil Alexandrina entre Ptolomeu e sua irmã, esposa e co-regente, Cleópatra VII. Talvez como resultado do papel de Ptolomeu no assassinato de Pompeu, César ficou do lado de Cleópatra, ele teria chorado ao ver a cabeça de Pompeu, que foi oferecida a ele pelo camareiro de Ptolomeu, Potino, como um presente.

Em qualquer caso, César foi sitiado em Alexandria e depois que Mitrídates libertou a cidade, César derrotou o exército de Ptolomeu e instalou Cleópatra como governante, com quem gerou seu único filho biológico conhecido, Ptolomeu XV César, mais conhecido como "Cesarião". César e Cleópatra nunca se casaram, devido à lei romana que proibia o casamento com um cidadão não romano.

Guerra contra Pharnaces [editar |

Depois de passar os primeiros meses de 9954 no Egito, César foi para a Síria e depois para Ponto para lidar com Farnácios II, um rei cliente de Pompeu que havia aproveitado a guerra civil para atacar Deiotaro, amigo dos romanos, e tornar-se governante da Cólquida e da Armênia menor. Em Nicópolis, Farnaces derrotou a pequena oposição romana que o governador da Ásia, Cneu Domício Calvino, conseguiu reunir. Ele também havia tomado a cidade de Amisus, que era uma aliada romana, tornou todos os meninos eunucos e vendeu os habitantes a traficantes de escravos. Após esta demonstração de força, Pharnaces recuou para pacificar suas novas conquistas.

No entanto, a abordagem extremamente rápida de César em pessoa forçou Farnaces a voltar sua atenção para os romanos. A princípio, reconhecendo a ameaça, ele fez ofertas de submissão, com o único objetivo de ganhar tempo até que a atenção de César caísse em outro lugar, sem sucesso César rapidamente derrotou Farnácios na Batalha de Zela (o moderno Zile na Turquia) com apenas um pequeno destacamento de cavalaria. A vitória de César foi tão rápida e completa que, em uma carta a um amigo em Roma, ele fez a famosa frase da curta guerra: "Veni, vidi, vici" ("Eu vim, vi, venci"). Na verdade, para seu triunfo Pôntico, esse pode muito bem ter sido o rótulo exibido acima dos despojos.

O próprio Pharnaces fugiu rapidamente de volta para o Bósforo, onde conseguiu reunir uma pequena força de tropas citas e sármatas, com as quais conseguiu obter o controle de algumas cidades, no entanto, um ex-governador seu, Asandar, atacou suas forças e matou dele. O historiador Appian afirma que Pharnaces morreu na batalha Cassius Dio diz que Pharnaces foi capturado e depois morto.

Campanha posterior na África e a guerra em Cato [editar |

Enquanto César estava no Egito instalando Cleópatra como governante único, quatro de suas legiões veteranas acamparam fora de Roma sob o comando de Marco Antônio. As legiões estavam esperando por sua dispensa e pelo pagamento de bônus que César havia prometido a eles antes da batalha de Farsália. Como César permaneceu no Egito, a situação se deteriorou rapidamente. Antônio perdeu o controle das tropas e elas começaram a saquear propriedades ao sul da capital. Várias delegações de diplomatas foram enviadas para tentar conter o motim.

Nada funcionou e os amotinados continuaram a pedir dispensas e salários atrasados. Depois de vários meses, César finalmente chegou para falar pessoalmente às legiões. César sabia que precisava dessas legiões para lidar com os apoiadores de Pompeu no norte da África, que reuniram 14 legiões próprias. César também sabia que não tinha fundos para devolver o pagamento aos soldados, muito menos o dinheiro necessário para induzi-los a se alistar novamente na campanha do norte da África.

Quando César se aproximou do palanque do palestrante, um silêncio caiu sobre os soldados amotinados. A maioria ficou envergonhada por seu papel no motim na presença de César. César perguntou às tropas o que elas queriam com sua voz fria. Envergonhados de exigir dinheiro, os homens começaram a clamar por sua dispensa. César os chamou de "cidadãos" em vez de "soldados", uma indicação tácita de que já haviam se despedido em virtude de sua deslealdade.

Ele continuou, dizendo-lhes que todos teriam alta imediatamente. Ele disse que pagaria a eles o dinheiro que devia a eles depois que ganhasse a campanha do norte da África com outras legiões. Os soldados ficaram chocados. Eles passaram por 15 anos de guerra com César e se tornaram ferozmente leais a ele no processo. Nunca lhes ocorreu que César não precisasse deles.

A resistência dos soldados entrou em colapso. Eles lotaram o estrado e imploraram para serem levados para o norte da África. César fingiu indignação e depois se deixou conquistar. Quando ele anunciou que permitiria que eles se juntassem à campanha, uma grande alegria surgiu das tropas reunidas. Por meio dessa psicologia reversa, César alistou novamente quatro entusiastas legiões de veteranos para invadir o norte da África sem gastar uma única sesterce.

César rapidamente obteve uma vitória significativa em Thapsus em 9955 sobre as forças de Metellus Scipio, Cato the Younger e Juba (que cometeram suicídio).

Segunda campanha hispânica e o fim da guerra [editar |

No entanto, os filhos de Luca Gnaeus Pompeius e Sextus Pompeius, juntamente com Tito Labieno (o ex-legado propretoriano de César (legatus propraetore) e segundo em comando na Guerra da Gália) escapou para a Hispânia. César perseguiu e derrotou os últimos resquícios da oposição na Batalha de Munda em março de 9956. Durante este tempo, César foi eleito para seu terceiro e quarto mandatos como cônsul em 9955 (com Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) e 9956 (sine collega, sem um colega).


Conquistas

  • Na vanguarda do neoclassicismo, West sentiu que a arte deveria transmitir virtudes ideais e contos moralizantes para educar e civilizar o grande público. Baseando-se em fontes visuais e literárias clássicas, bem como na filosofia da era do Iluminismo, a ênfase da arte neoclássica na simetria, estabilidade e nobreza foi uma tentativa de incutir os mesmos valores na cidadania.
  • Enquanto pintava principalmente para um público europeu, especificamente britânico, West teve o cuidado de contornar as tensões entre a Inglaterra e suas colônias do Novo Mundo. Embora sensível aos sentimentos ingleses, West ainda insistia em pintar temas tirados do Novo Mundo, incluindo nativos americanos e batalhas coloniais.
  • West, porém, não se contentou em contar histórias antigas e, em vez disso, incorporou eventos e roupas contemporâneas em suas pinturas. Embora criticado por desprezar as regras do neoclassicismo adotadas pela Royal Academy of London, a aposta de West valeu a pena. Seu Morte do General Wolfe era muito popular e uma das pinturas mais reproduzidas da época.
  • A tendência de West para a inovação e seu talento para saber o que era popular entre o público o levaram a abraçar o Romantismo no final de sua carreira. Enfatizando uma narrativa mais dramática e evocando o sublime, os trabalhos posteriores de West ainda engajaram o espectador, mas apelando para seu senso de emoção em vez de razão.

O ataque de Hannibal [editar |

Marco Lívio, o governador da cidade, era um bom soldado, mas é considerado um homem de hábitos indolentes e luxuosos. Na noite indicada por Aníbal para o ataque, ele estava festejando com amigos e retirou-se para descansar, carregado de comida e vinho. No meio da noite, ele foi acordado quando os conspiradores tocaram o alarme em algumas trombetas romanas e encontraram Aníbal e 10.000 de seus soldados já dentro da cidade. Muitos dos soldados romanos estavam dormindo ou bêbados e foram abatidos pelos cartagineses quando saíram aos tropeços para as ruas. Aníbal manteve o controle de suas tropas a ponto de não haver pilhagem geral. Comprometido em respeitar a liberdade tarentina, Aníbal pediu aos tarentinos que marcassem as casas onde os tarentinos viviam. Apenas as casas não marcadas e, portanto, pertencentes aos romanos foram saqueadas. Marco Lívio conseguiu trazer suas tropas sobreviventes para a cidadela, onde resistiram aos cartagineses durante a guerra. No entanto, a cidade foi perdida. Todas as cidades gregas no sul da Itália, com exceção de Rhegium, estavam agora sob o controle de Aníbal.


Casamentos e questões [editar |

Antônio era conhecido por ter uma obsessão por mulheres e sexo. & # 91151 & # 93 & # 91152 & # 93 & # 91153 & # 93 & # 91154 & # 93 & # 91155 & # 93 Ele teve muitas amantes (incluindo Cytheris) e foi casado em sucessão com Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia, Octavia e Cleopatra, e deixou para trás vários filhos. & # 91156 & # 93 & # 91157 & # 93 Por meio de suas filhas com Otávia, ele seria o ancestral dos imperadores romanos Calígula, Cláudio e Nero.

  1. Casamento com Fadia, filha de um liberto. De acordo com Cícero, Fadia deu à luz Antônio vários filhos. Nada se sabe sobre Fadia ou seus filhos. Cícero é a única fonte romana que menciona a primeira esposa de Antônio.
  2. Casamento com a prima paterna Antonia Hybrida Menor. De acordo com Plutarco, Antônio a expulsou de sua casa em Roma porque ela dormiu com seu amigo, o tribuno Publius Cornelius Dolabella. Isso ocorreu por volta de 9954 e Antônio se divorciou dela. Com Antonia, ele teve uma filha:
      , casou-se com o rico grego Pythodoros de Tralles.
  3. Casamento com Fúlvia, de quem teve dois filhos:
      , assassinado por Otaviano em 9971. , casou-se com Claudia Marcella Major, filha de Octavia.
  4. Casamento com Otávia, a Jovem, irmã de Otaviano, mais tarde imperador Augusto, eles tiveram duas filhas:
      (também conhecida como Júlia Antônia Maior), & # 91158 & # 93 casou-se com Lúcio Domício Ahenobarbo (cônsul 9985), avó materna da Imperatriz Valéria Messalina e avó paterna do Imperador Nero. (também conhecida como Julia Antonia Menor), & # 91158 & # 93 casou-se com Nero Claudius Drusus, o filho mais novo da Imperatriz Lívia Drusila e irmão do Imperador Tibério, mãe do Imperador Cláudio, avó paterna do Imperador Calígula e da Imperatriz Agripina, a Jovem, e bisavó materna do imperador Nero.
  5. Filhos com a Rainha Cleópatra VII do Egito, ex-amante de Júlio César:, casou-se com o rei Juba II da Numídia e mais tarde com a Mauretânia, a rainha da Síria, Zenóbia de Palmyra, era supostamente descendente de Selene e Juba II. .

César, Júlio: Guerra Civil

Depois que o primeiro triunvirato terminou, o senado apoiou Pompeu, que se tornou o único cônsul em 52 aC Enquanto isso, César havia se tornado um herói militar e também um campeão do povo. O Senado o temia e queria que ele desistisse de seu exército, sabendo que esperava ser cônsul quando seu mandato na Gália terminasse. Em dezembro de 50 aC, César escreveu ao senado que desistiria de seu exército se Pompeu desistisse do seu. O senado ouviu a carta com fúria e exigiu que César dissolvesse seu exército imediatamente ou fosse declarado inimigo do povo - um projeto de lei ilegal, pois César tinha o direito de manter seu exército até o fim de seu mandato.

Dois tribunos fiéis a César, Marc Antony e Quintus Cassius Longinus (ver sob Cássio) vetaram o projeto de lei e foram rapidamente expulsos do Senado. Eles fugiram para César, que reuniu seu exército e pediu o apoio dos soldados contra o Senado. O exército convocou a ação e, em 19 de janeiro de 49 aC, César com as palavras Iacta alea est [a sorte está lançada] cruzou o Rubicão, o riacho que delimita sua província, para entrar na Itália. A guerra civil havia começado.

A marcha de César para Roma foi um progresso triunfal. O senado fugiu para Cápua. César prosseguiu para Brundisium, onde sitiou Pompeu até que este fugisse (março de 49 aC) com sua frota para a Grécia. César partiu imediatamente para a Espanha, que os legados de Pompeu estavam mantendo, e pacificou aquela província. Retornando a Roma, César manteve a ditadura por 11 dias no início de dezembro, tempo suficiente para se eleger cônsul, e então partiu para a Grécia em busca de Pompeu.

César reuniu em Brundisium um pequeno exército e uma pequena frota - tão pequena, na verdade, que Bíbulo, esperando com uma frota muito maior para impedir sua travessia para o Épiro, ainda não se preocupou em vigiá-lo - e deslizou pelo estreito. Ele encontrou Pompeu em Dirráquio, mas foi forçado a recuar e começar uma longa retirada para o sul, com Pompeu em sua perseguição. Perto de Farsala, César acampou em uma localização muito estratégica. Pompeu, que tinha um exército muito maior, atacou César, mas foi derrotado (48 aC) e fugiu para o Egito, onde foi morto.

César, tendo perseguido Pompeu até o Egito, permaneceu lá por algum tempo, morando com Cleópatra, tomando sua parte contra seu irmão e marido Ptolomeu XIII e estabelecendo-a firmemente no trono. Do Egito foi para a Síria e Ponto, onde derrotou (47 aC) Farnácios II com tanta facilidade que relatou sua vitória nas palavras Veni, vidi, vici [vim, vi, venci]. No mesmo ano, ele derrubou pessoalmente um motim de seu exército e então partiu para a África, para onde os seguidores de Pompeu haviam fugido, para encerrar sua oposição liderada por Catão.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6ª ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. Todos os direitos reservados.

Veja mais artigos da Enciclopédia em: História Antiga, Roma: Biografias


Juventude e carreira

Cícero era filho de uma rica família de Arpinum. Admirávelmente educado em Roma e na Grécia, ele prestou serviço militar em 89 sob o comando de Pompeu Estrabão (o pai do estadista e general Pompeu) e fez sua primeira aparição nos tribunais defendendo Publius Quinctius em 81. Sua brilhante defesa, em 80 ou início de 79 , de Sexto Róscio contra uma acusação forjada de parricídio estabeleceu sua reputação na ordem dos advogados, e ele começou sua carreira pública como questor (um escritório de administração financeira) no oeste da Sicília em 75.

Como pretor, oficial judiciário de grande poder nesta época, em 66 fez seu primeiro discurso político importante, quando, contra Quintus Lutatius Catulus e os dirigentes Optimates (o elemento conservador no Senado romano), falou a favor da conferência de Pompeu comando da campanha contra Mithradates VI, rei de Ponto (no nordeste da Anatólia). Seu relacionamento com Pompeu, cujo ódio por Marco Licínio Crasso ele compartilhava, seria o ponto focal de sua carreira na política. Sua eleição como cônsul para 63 foi conseguida por Optimates, que temia as idéias revolucionárias de seu rival, Catilina.

No primeiro de seus discursos consulares, ele se opôs ao projeto agrário de Servilius Rullus, no interesse do ausente Pompeu, mas sua principal preocupação era descobrir e tornar públicas as intenções sediciosas de Catilina, que, derrotado em 64, apareceu novamente no eleições consulares em 63 (presididas por Cícero, vestindo uma armadura por baixo da toga). Catilina perdeu e planejava realizar levantes armados na Itália e incêndios criminosos em Roma. Cícero teve dificuldade em persuadir o Senado do perigo, mas o “último decreto” (Senatus consultum ultimum), algo como uma proclamação da lei marcial, foi aprovada em 22 de outubro. Em 8 de novembro, após escapar de um atentado contra sua vida, Cícero fez o primeiro discurso contra Catilina no Senado, e Catilina deixou Roma naquela noite. As evidências incriminando os conspiradores foram obtidas e, após um debate no Senado em que Cato, o Jovem, falou pela execução e Júlio César contra, eles foram executados sob a responsabilidade de Cícero. Cícero, anunciando sua morte para a multidão com uma única palavra vixerunt (“Eles estão mortos”), recebeu uma ovação tremenda de todas as classes, o que inspirou seu subsequente apelo na política para concordia ordinum, “Concordância entre as classes”. Ele foi saudado por Catulus como "pai de seu país". Este foi o clímax de sua carreira.


Grande Guerra Civil Romana, 50-44 a.C.

A Grande Guerra Civil Romana (50-44 aC) foi desencadeada pela rivalidade entre Júlio César e sua oposição conservadora no Senado, e viu César derrotar todos os seus inimigos em batalhas espalhadas pelo mundo romano, antes de ser famoso por ser assassinado em Roma em os idos de março, desencadeando mais uma rodada de guerras civis.

A Grande Guerra Civil Romana foi o meio de uma série de guerras civis que abalaram e, por fim, destruíram a República Romana. A política romana costumava ser cruel, mas o baixo nível quase normal de violência foi primeiro transformado em guerra civil pela rivalidade entre Mário e Sila.

Marius foi um dos grandes heróis militares da República, cônsul por cinco anos consecutivos de 104 aC a 100 aC, e responsável pela derrota dos Cimbri e Teutones, duas tribos germânicas que derrotaram os exércitos romanos na Gália e tentaram invadir a Itália, e o comandante romano no início da Guerra Social (91-88 aC).

Sulla guerreia contra um próximo comandante. Ele serviu sob o comando de Marius na África e contra os Cimbri e Teutones, e fez seu nome no comando independente durante a Guerra Social. Embora Sila e Marius tivessem originalmente trabalhado juntos, no final da Guerra Social eles eram rivais ferozes.

Em 88 aC Sulla foi um dos dois cônsules. Uma das recompensas desse posto era que seria seguido por um comando militar, e Sulla recebeu o comando da guerra contra Mitrídates, o Grande do Ponto (Primeira Guerra Mitridática). No entanto, Mário também queria o comando e encontrou um aliado no tribuno P. Sulpício, que havia desentendido com Sila por causa da integração dos novos cidadãos italianos no sistema de votação romano. Quando Sulpício tentou distribuir os italianos entre todas as trinta e cinco tribos romanas, para que seus votos tivessem algum significado, Sila se opôs a ele. Sulpício e Marius formaram uma aliança, os cônsules tentaram suspender todos os negócios públicos e eclodiram motins. Sila foi forçado a se abrigar com Marius e concordou em apoiar as leis italianas. Ele então retornou ao seu exército, que estava sitiando Nola. Assim que Sila saiu da cidade, Sulpício usou seus poderes para transferir o comando oriental de Sila para Marius.

Marius e Sulpício haviam julgado Sila muito mal. Quando recebeu a notícia, Sila decidiu liderar seu exército até Roma, uma decisão importante, quebrando um tabu tão antigo quanto a República. Todos os seus oficiais, exceto um, o abandonaram quando a decisão se tornou pública, mas as tropas se aliaram a Sila e assassinaram um grupo de tribunos militares enviados por Mário para assumir o comando. Marius e Sulpicius não tinham soldados à sua disposição - nenhum era permitido em Roma - e as forças improvisadas que eles conseguiram reunir foram incapazes de enfrentar os homens de Sila (batalha do Fórum Esquilino, 88 aC). Sulpício foi traído e morto, mas Marius conseguiu escapar para a África.

O assentamento de Sila foi desfeito em 87 aC. Um dos cônsules do ano, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, se opôs às reformas de Sila. Depois que uma tentativa de introduzir a reforma do voto fracassou, ele foi expulso da cidade, formou um exército e voltou a sitiar Roma. Ele foi apoiado por Marius, que voltou da África, e a cidade caiu. Mário, em vez disso, manchou sua reputação com um massacre de seus supostos inimigos, mas morreu no início de 86 aC, logo após iniciar seu sétimo consulado. Isso deixou Cinna como a figura dominante na Itália nos anos seguintes.

Enquanto isso acontecia, Sila fez campanha no leste, onde conseguiu expulsar Mitrídates de todas as suas conquistas. Em vez disso, um exército mariano enviado para se opor a Sila fez campanha contra Mitrídates, depois que seu comandante original foi derrubado por um de seus tribunos. Por volta de 85 aC Mitrídates estava pronto para fazer a paz, encerrando a guerra e libertando Sila para retornar à Itália. Cinna foi morto em um motim entre soldados que não queriam arriscar a viagem marítima aos Bálcãs para enfrentar Sulla, deixando Carbo para liderar a resistência a Sulla.

Em 83 aC Sulla voltou para a Itália. A campanha de 83 aC foi indecisa e a guerra continuou em 82 aC. O foco principal da guerra naquele ano foi um longo cerco de Praeneste, onde o jovem Marius foi forçado a se refugiar após sofrer derrota na batalha de Sacriportus. Os marianos fizeram várias tentativas de levantar o cerco, mas todas falharam. Their Samnite allies even attempted to attack Rome, and were defeated in a desperate battle outside the Colline Gate. Soon after this the defenders of Praeneste gave up. Marius committed suicide, while Carbo fled from Italy, and died soon afterwards. Pompey the Great was sent to deal with the Marians in Sicily and Africa, only leaving the forces of Sertorius in Spain.

Sulla's rule began badly, with the infamous proscriptions. A series of lists of his political opponents were posted in the Forum, and it was legal to kill anyone who was on the list. Several of his allies, most notoriously Crassus, used the proscriptions to become rich, getting the names of innocent but wealthy men added to the lists. Eventually Sulla ended the bloodbath, but it was a permanent stain on his reputation.

Next came his constitutional reforms. Sulla believed that the popular assemblies and the Tribunes of the Plebs were largely responsible for political instability in Rome (rather ignoring the role of ambitious aristocrats such as himself). First he made himself 'Dictator for the Reconstitution of the State', giving his actions a veneer of legality based on ancient precedent. He eliminated the powers of the Tribunes to veto or put forward laws, and barred anyone who had served as tribune from holding any further offices, in an attempt to make the post less attractive. The popular assemblies were only allowed to vote on laws that the Senate had already approved. The career structure for Roman aristocrats was more firmly controlled. Each post would have to be held in turn, from quaestor to praetor to consul, and age limits were imposed - 30 for quaestor, 42 for consul. The number of quaestors was increased to twenty, and they were given automatic entry into the Senate, reducing the power of the censors. The number of normal praetors was increased to eight. Nobody could hold the same post twice within ten years. The aim was to produce a stable system dominated by the aristocracy, but Sulla failed to address the biggest problem that would be faced by the Republic over the next few years - the power of the army. After setting up his new constitution Sulla stood down as dictator, and returned to private life. His constitution didn't last terribly long after his death in 78 BC.

The period between the death of Sulla and the outbreak of the Great Civil War saw some of the most famous names in Roman history come to the fore. Julius Caesar is of course the most famous of them, but at the start of the period he was a fairly junior name. The two leading figures were Pompey the Great, who first gained fame by raising a private army to help Sulla during his second civil war, and the famously wealthy Crassus, who mainly used his influence behind the scenes, taking advantage of his financial power over many of his fellow Romans. Only slightly below them in influence was Cato the Younger, an uncompromising conservative whose single minded defence of what he believed was the status-quo probably played a major part in the fall of the Republic by backing his opponents into increasingly difficult positions. The orator, lawyer and politician Cicero was less influential than he believed, but his writings provide an invaluable view of the period, and he did serve as Consul. A confusingly large cast of aristocratic figures filled out the political scene, often changing sides with bewildering speed.

The first challenge to Sulla&rsquos constitution began almost as soon as he gave up power. The consuls for 78 BC were Q. Catulus, a supporter of Sulla and M. Lepidus, one of his noisiest opponents. Lepidus began to campaign for the repeal of some of Sulla&rsquos laws almost as soon as his term of office began, possibly even while Sulla was still alive. The two consuls clashed openly after they were sent to put down a revolt in Etruria, where Lepidus decided to side with the rebels. The Senate was unwilling to stand up to him and risk another civil war, and instead gave him the province of Transalpine Gaul in an attempt to get him out of Rome. However they then summoned him to Rome to hold the elections for 77 BC, but Lepidus chose to march on the city at the head of the Etrurian rebels and demand a second term as Consul.

After wavering for a moment, the Senate regained its nerve and commissioned Catulus and Pompey to put down Lepidus&rsquos revolt. Lepidus reached Rome, where he was defeated by Catulus and Pompey near the Mulvian Bridge and the Janiculum. Catulus pursued Lepidus as he retreated to Etruria, while Pompey moved further north and besieged Lepidus&rsquos legate M. Brutus at Mutina. Mutina soon fell, and Brutus was killed (rather controversially). Pompey pursued his defeated forces to Liguria, where he captured and killed Lepidus&rsquos son Scipio. Pompey then joined Catulus in time to take part in the final battle of the brief civil war at Cosa in Etruria. Lepidus fled to Sardinia where he soon died. His surviving supporters fled to Spain under the command of Perperna, where they soon joined Sertorius, the last of Sulla&rsquos opponents still in arms against his new constitution.

With civil war averted, Pompey was ordered to disband his army, but much to the Senate&rsquos alarm he refused. Luckily for them, Pompey had no interest in seizing power. Instead he wanted to be sent to Spain, where Sertorius had won a series of victories over Senatorial armies, and was currently holding his own against Metellus Pius. Neither of the consuls for 77 BC were willing to go to Spain, and eventually the Senate gave in and sent Pompey. Once in Spain he worked fairly well with Metellus Pius, and by 72 BC Sertorius had been killed and the Sertorian War was over.

Over the next few years Roman domestic politics were dominated by attempts to restore the power of the Tribunes, greatly reduced by Sulla. However this was overshadowed in 73 BC by the outbreak of Spartacus&rsquos revolt. This began with the escape of a band of gladiators led by Spartacus from a school in Capua, but soon expanded into a full-blown revolt. Spartacus ended up with a massive army, with which he was able to roam up and down the Italian peninsula seemingly at will, defeating every army that was sent against him. Eventually the command was taken away from the Consuls and given to Crassus, who raised a massive army of his own, and trapped Spartacus in the far south of Italy. An attempt to escape to Sicily failed, and Spartacus was finally defeated by Crassus during his third attempt to escape from the far south. Much to Crassus&rsquos annoyance, Pompey had just been recalled to Italy and defeated 5,000 fleeing rebels, allowing him to claim a part in the defeat of the revolt.

In the aftermath of the revolt Pompey gained a third Triumph, for his victories in Spain, but Crassus had to make do with an Ovation, as crushing a slave revolt didn&rsquot justify a full triumph. A more significant reward was that the two men were elected as the consuls for 70 BC. They cooperated to restore the powers of the tribunes, but otherwise spent most of their year in power opposing each other. The two men staged a public reconciliation at the end of their year of office, but it isn&rsquot clear how genuine it was.

Pompey wasn&rsquot a terribly effective politician in normal times, and rather faded into the background between periods of crisis. On this occasion it was the growing threat of the Mediterranean&rsquos fleets of pirates that brought him back into the limelight. Many of the naval powers that had kept the pirates under control had been weakened by Rome, and they even threatened the Italian coast. After a series of ineffective attempts to deal with the problem, in 67 BC Pompey was given the command of the campaign against the pirates, with sweeping powers. He was given proconsular powers across the Mediterranean, and as far as fifty miles inland, with power equal to any proconsul in the area.

Pompey&rsquos campaign against the pirates was one of his most impressive achievements. He raised a massive fleet, which he divided into separate divisions that each patrolled part of the sea. Pompey himself took his main fleet to Cilicia to deal with the main pirate bases. The campaign only took three months, and by the end of the summer of 67 BC the pirates had been defeated.

Pompey&rsquos next command was against Mithridates, who had been at war with Rome since 73 BC (Third Mithridatic War). Lucullus, the Roman commander during most of the war, successfully expelled Mithridates from his kingdom of Pontus then chased him into Armenia, where he inflicted a series of defeats on the Armenians of Tigranes the Great. However he was unable to actually complete his victory, and in 67 BC Mithridates defeated the Roman forces that had been left behind in Pontus at the battle of Nicopolis and briefly regained command of his kingdom. By this time Lucullus had lost much of his political support in Rome, and in 66 BC Pompey was given command of the war. Once again Pompey moved quickly, and by the end of the year Mithridates had been defeated and forced to flee into exile. In 65 BC he reached Crimea, where he seized power from his disloyal son Machares, and began to plot for his return. However this time he was unable to keep hold of power, and was eventually forced to commit suicide after his son rebelled against him.

Over the next few years Pompey reorganised large parts of the East. He stripped away Tigranes&rsquos conquests, and claimed authority over Syria, where the last remnants of the once-mighty Seleucid Empire were swept away without any difficulties. Pompey finally returned to Rome in 62 BC, coming back as a conquering hero who had defeated one of her most persistent enemies, and gained vast new provinces for her. Unfortunately for Rome, many of the more conservative figures in the Senate distrusted Pompey because of his success, because of the irregular nature of his career, and because he wasn&rsquot &lsquoone of them&rsquo. Their unwillingness to compromise with Pompey and their persistent attempts to block his proposals would soon force him into an unexpected alliance with Crassus and Caesar.

Pompey returned to Italy towards the end of 62 BC. Many of the Senate&rsquos conservatives had feared that he would march on Rome with his army and seize power, but instead he disbanded his troops as soon as he landed, and made a peaceful progress towards Rome. He then stopped at his villa in Alba where he waited to celebrate his triumph). Pompey managed to get one of his supporters, M. Piso, elected as one of the consuls for 61 BC, but he turned out to be a great disappointment. Instead of focusing on getting Pompey&rsquos settlement of the east and land settlement for this troops approved, Piso focused on his own feud with his fellow consul M. Messalla.

Pompey eventually gave up on Piso, and managed to get another of his supporters, L. Afranius, elected as one of the consuls for 60 BC. This electoral success was probably helped by the celebration of Pompey&rsquos magnificent two-day long triumph in September 61 BC, which will have reminded the Roman people of the vast increase in wealth he had won for them. An attempt to pass a land bill in 60 BC ended in farce, with the other consul, Metellus Celer, conducting official business from prison. In the end the bill failed.

Events were now rushing towards the formation of the first triumvirate, although until the very last moment the idea that Pompey and Crassus might cooperate in such a way seemed impossible. The catalyst for this transformation of the political scene was Julius Caesar. He had just won a small war in western Spain, and had been awarded a triumph. He was also determined to stand for election as one of the consuls for 59 BC. Caesar was another of the people that Cato the Younger was bitterly opposed to. In an attempt to stop him standing for consul, Cato convinced the Senate to refuse to all Caesar to declare his candidacy without crossing the sacred boundary of Rome. Caesar was now faced with a clear choice - stay outside the boundary, celebrate his triumph but lose the chance to stand for Consul, or cross the boundary, stand for consul but lose his triumph. Caesar chose the second option, entered the city, and stood for election. Cato and his faction attempted to reduce the potential damage by suggesting that instead of being giving overseas provinces to rule, the consuls of 59 BC should be given the task of clearing the brigands out of Italy. Finally the conservatives spend large amounts of money to make sure that Cato&rsquos son-in-law M. Calpurnius Bibulus was elected at Caesar&rsquos co-consul, in an attempt to make sure that Caesar would be unable to achieve anything during his year in power.

While all of this political manoeuvring was going on, Caesar approached Pompey and Crassus to try and gain their support. Both men had found their own political ambitions blocked by the same group of aristocratic senators who now opposed Caesar. At some point they came to an agreement to support each other&rsquos laws and requirements in the following year.

At first Caesar attempted to win over the optimates, acting in an apparently reasonable way. He put forward a new land bill, but attempted to remove those aspects that the conservatives had complained about in previous laws. The new land bill would be administered by a board of twenty men, and Caesar was banned from taking part. All land required would be purchased from willing sellers at its official value, using money won by Pompey. Despite all of his best efforts, his opponents still opposed the law, some because it had been proposed by Caesar and would thus win him popularity. Cato opposed it largely because it was an innovation, and others because Cato had opposed it. Caesar attempted to have Cato thrown into prison for obstructing the law, but had to back down. Finally, Caesar brought the law before the popular assemblies. Once again Bibulus refused to allow it to pass. Caesar called on Pompey, who unsurprisingly supported it. He then called on Crassus, who might well have been expected to oppose it, but apparently to most people&rsquos surprise Crassus publicly supported the bill, finally bringing the triumvirate into the open. On the day of the vote Bibulus attempted to use technical measures to make the vote invalid, while Cato attempted to protest against it, but they were removed by violence and the law passed. On the following day Bibulus was unable to get the senate to veto the law. After this failure Bibulus retired to his house, from where he attempted to declare bad auspices for every possible day on which public business could be carried out, but without any great impact. Caesar was effectively left to act as the sole consul for the year.

For the rest of the year Caesar ruled through the popular assembly. Pompey&rsquos eastern settlement was finally approved, while Crassus got the financial measures he had requested. The alliance between Caesar and Pompey was strengthened by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar&rsquos daughter Julia. A new, more radical land law was passed. Finally the previous distribution of the provinces was cancelled, and Caesar was granted Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for five years, with three legions. The Senate, on this occasion led by Pompey, added Transalpine Gaul and a fourth legion, in the hope that this would keep Caesar further away from Rome.

By the end of the year the triumvirs had got most of what they had wanted, but at great cost. Pompey had his eastern settlement and his land law, although had lost much of his popularity. Caesar had his year as consul and his command in Gaul, but had made permanent enemies in the Senate, who spent the entire time he was in Gaul preparing to bring him down on his return.

In 58 Caesar finally departed for Gaul, where he soon became involved in the famous Gallic War, using his provincial posting to launch one of the great wars of conquest of the Roman Republic. While he was away the politics of Rome remained as poisonous as ever. In 58 BC the main destabilising factor was the tribune Clodius, officially a supporter of Caesar, but in reality an immoral figure. During his time in office he forced Cicero into exile, using the events of Cicero&rsquos year at consul against him. However he was also a fairly skilful political operator. Clodius&rsquos election as Tribune was only legitimate if Caesar&rsquos laws from 59 BC were legitimate, as it had been Caesar who had allowed him to become a plebeian. The conservative opposition had attempted to have them declared illegal, but in 58 BC Cato agreed to accept a post as commissioner to take over the kingdom of Cyprus, which was to be taken over by Rome. By accepting this post, which he believed was in the best interests of Rome, Cato had effectively admitted that Caesar&rsquos acts of 59 BC were legal. However Clodius then turned against his patrons. He freed Tigranes, the son of the king of Armenia, a move that humiliated Pompey. The consul Gabinius protested and was attacked. Clodius then turned on Caesar, attacking the validity of his acts at consul!

In 57 BC Clodius was no longer tribune, but he was still popular and influential, and a member of the senate. The year was largely dominated by attempts to recall Cicero, and by a grain shortage, probably caused by the incompetence of the man Clodius had placed in charge of the grain commission. Clodius&rsquos actions in 58 BC had turned Pompey against him, and he campaigned in Italy in support of Cicero. Enough Italian voters came to Rome in the summer to ensure that Cicero was recalled. Cicero reached Rome in September, and was present when Pompey was given command of the grain supplies. This time he struggled to make an immediate impact, as there was a genuine shortage of grain at the time.

By 56 BC the triumvirate appeared to be in trouble. Pompey and Crassus were once again open rivals, and Caesar&rsquos enemies were gathering against him. Caesar appears to have taken the lead in restoring the alliance. In the spring he visited Crassus at Ravenna and Pompey at Luca and suggested that they should stand for the consulate in 55 BC. He would send some of his soldiers to support their candidacy. Cicero abandoned his opposition to Caesar, and Clodius fell into line, at least for the moment. The elections were held early in 55 BC, and as planned Pompey and Crassus were duly elected. They quickly dealt with their provinces for the following years. Crassus was given Syria and Pompey Spain, both for five years, while Caesar&rsquos command was extended for five years.

Collapse of the Triumvirate

The triumvirate had reached the peak of its success, and events now forced the three men apart. In 54 Crassus left for Syria, suddenly determined to revive his military reputation by conquering Parthia. Caesar was still in Gaul, so this only left Pompey in Rome. His bonds with Caesar were weakened when his wife Julia died, breaking the family connection between the two men. One of the consuls for the year was Ahenobarbus, one of the men Pompey and Crassus had stood to keep out of office in the first place, while Cato was elected at praetor. They attempted to undermine the triumvirs, but were unable to compete with the glamour of Caesar&rsquos military successes and Cicero&rsquos speeches. Their moral authority was also badly undermined when they accepted bribes from one of the consular candidates for 53 BC.

The first really serious blow came in 53 BC. Crassus finally began his invasion of Parthia, only to be defeated and killed at Carrhae. The year also began without any consuls in place, and a prolonged and violent rivalry between Clodius and Milo, both of whom raised private armies. Pompey eventually returned to the city and held the elections in the summer, by which time most people&rsquos attention had turned to the elections for 52 BC. Clodius decided to stand, and once again violence on the streets prevented the elections from happening as normal.

The rioting continued in 52 BC. Early in the year Clodius and Milo ran into each other near Bovillae outside Rome, and Clodius was killed after taking refuge in a nearby tavern. Clodius&rsquos funeral pyre was built inside the senate house, and the entire building burnt down. In response the Senate asked Pompey to restore order. Some suggested that he should be made dictator, but instead he was made sole consul. Pompey used this call to switch his support to the conservative faction. L. Domitius Ahenobarbus was put in charge of an investigation into the bribery and violence of recent months. Pompey turned down an offer to marry Caesar&rsquos great-niece and instead chose to marry Crassus&rsquos son&rsquos widow Cornelia, the daughter of Q. Metellus Scipio, an important member of the aristocratic faction. Pompey was also able to quickly restore order, and make sure that the elections for 51 BC went more smoothly.

The consuls for 51 BC were M Marcellus, an orator who had been opposed to Caesar, and Ser. Sulpicius Rufus, reputedly an honest man. Marcellus announced that he would raise the issue of replacing Caesar in Gaul, making him vulnerable to prosecution. Sulpicius opposed the plan, fearing that it would trigger another civil war. The debate on Gaul eventually took place in September 51 BC, and it was agreed that new governors would be allocated in the spring of 50 BC. Caesar would thus lose his army and his immunity months before the consular elections for 49 BC, leaving him vulnerable to prosecution. Pompey supported this measure.

The consuls for 50 BC were C. Marcellus, a cousin of M. Marcellus, and L Aemilius Paullus. Marcellus was related to Caesar by marriage and Paullus owned him a favour after Caesar lent him 1,500 talents to help complete the rebuilding of the basilica in the Roman Forum. One of the tribunes was Curio, one of Caesar&rsquos opponents during his year as consul, but soon to turn out to have changed sides. When the date allocated for the discussion of the new governor for Gaul, Curio made sure that it was delayed. Pompey suggested that Caesar should give up his command on the Ides of November, 46 days before the start of the next consular year. This would still have left him vulnerable to prosecution. Pompey now had an army of his own, ready to lead it east to deal with the Parthians, but late in the year they withdrew from Syria to deal with a civil war. Caesar was at Ravenna, still within his province, but dangerously close to Rome. However most of his army was still in Gaul, and the Senate believed that it had the stronger military position.

The final crisis began with an attack on Curio in the senate. He responded by proposing that both Caesar and Pompey should give up their commands, although he didn&rsquot specify when (he was still Caesar&rsquos man). The motion passed by 370 votes to 22. The consul C. Marcellus believed that this vote meant it was inevitable that Caesar would bring his legions to Rome, and went to Pompey to ask him to take command of the two legions ready for the Parthian War and defend the Republic. Pompey agreed to do so, &lsquoif all else fails&rsquo.

On 10 December Curio&rsquos period of office ended, and he departed to join Caesar at Ravenna. He was then chosen to bring Caesar&rsquos peace offer to the Senate. Caesar suggested that both he and Pompey should lay down their commands, and submit to the judgement of the Roman people. If Pompey didn&rsquot agree then Caesar threatened to &lsquocome quickly and avenge his country&rsquos wrongs and his own&rsquo. The Senate refused to debate this suggestion. Instead Metellus Scipio put forward a proposal that if Caesar didn&rsquot disband his armies by a fixed date then he would be declared an enemy of the state. The motion was passed, but vetoed by two of the tribunes.

One final compromise was suggested. Caesar would give up almost all of his provinces, but keep at least Illyricum and one legion until the start of his second consulship. Pompey was willing to go along with this plan, but Cato and the other conservatives blocked it. On 7 January they passed an emergency degree that the officers of the government should see that the Republic suffers no harm. Caesar&rsquos two supporters amongst the Tribunes, Antony and Cassius, were told that their safety could no longer be guaranteed. They decided to seek refuge with Caesar, joined by Curio and Caelius. When the exiled tribunes reached Caesar, he finally decided to break with the Senate and march on Rome, feeling that he had been given no choice.

The Outbreak of War

On 10 January 49 BC (by the Roman calendar, which at the time was some way out of sync with the seasons) Caesar led his single legion (Legio XIII Gemina) across the Rubicon, the river that marked the north-eastern boundary of Italy proper. By doing this he broke the law that stated that only a current magistrate could exercise Imperium, the right to command troops, in Italy. Caesar, as a proconsul and governor of Gaul, had the right to command troops within his province. Caesar recognised that he was taking a massive gamble, and was famously believed to have said 'let the die be cast',

The collapse of the Republican institutions was clearly demonstrated by the response to Caesar's invasion. It should have been the two consuls for the year, Lentulus and C. Marcellus, who led the Republican response, but instead that task was given to Pompey the Great. Caesar moved too quickly for the Republicans. He split his army in two. Antony was sent inland to Arretium, on the Via Cassia, while Caesar moved down the Adriatic coast to Ancona, on the Via Flaminia. Caesar's rapid movement caused a panic in Rome. On 17 January the news that he was already at Ancona reached the city, and Pompey decided to Rome. He ordered the consuls and senate to move south to Campania. In the meantime Caesar occupied Picenum, the area opposite Rome on the Adriatic coast.

The first resistance came at Corfinium, a crossroads town to the east of Rome. The newly appointed proconsul for Transalpine Gaul, Domitius Ahenobarbus, didn&rsquot see himself as bound to obey Pompey, who he saw as simply another proconsul. He raised an army equivalent to three legions, and attempted to defend the town. When Caesar's men turned up, Ahenobarbus's troops refused to fight and forced him to surrender. Caesar showed the clemency for which he would soon become famous, and allowed all the prisoners of senatorial or equestrian rank to go free. Ahenobarbus' troops were taken into Caesar's service, and then sent to Sicily.

Pompey had no intention of fighting in Italy. He only had access to two legions, both of which had served under Caesar and were thus of doubtful loyalty. As Caesar's army moved south, Pompey and the consuls moved to Brundisium, close to the eastern tip of Italy. On 4 March the consuls set sail for Epirus. Caesar arrived a few days later with three veteran and three new legions. He attempted to trap Pompey in Brundisium, but on 17 March Pompey managed to slip past Caesar's planned blockade, heading for Epirus.

In just over two months Caesar had forced his enemies to abandon Italy, and with it Rome. This was an impressive achievement, although his enemies still occupied large parts of the Empire - Pompey's men ruled in Spain, while the main Republican forces were now in the east. Pompey's decision not to at least attempt to defend Rome was almost certainly a mistake, abandoning the heart of the Republic to Caesar.

After failing to trap Pompey at Brundisium Caesar returned to Rome. He stayed there for two not entirely successful weeks. His attempts to at least appear to be acting legitimately were spoilt by L. Metellus, one of the tribune of the plebs, who used his right of veto to block all of Caesar's proposals. Caesar had to cross over the pomoerium, the sacred boundary of Rome, to threaten Metellus and seize the money in the treasury. This was another breach of Roman tradition, as any proconsul who crossed the pomoerium was considered to have lost his Império, and with it his command.

Espanha (49 BC)

Caesar's next move was to march to Spain to deal with Pompey's supporters in that area. On his way he faced opposition at Massilia, which decided to side with Pompey and the Republicans. The resulting siege of Massilia actually lasted longer than Caesar's campaign in Spain, and the city only surrendered when Caesar reappeared on his way back to Italy. Caesar couldn't afford to stop and conduct the siege in person. He left Decimus Brutus to conduct the siege (winning two naval battles outside Massilia in the process), and continued on to Spain.

Spain was the location of one of Pompey's earliest military successes, the defeat of the Roman rebel Sertorius (Sertorian War), and Spain had been his proconsular province for some years. He had three armies in Spain - L. Afranius and M. Petreius were in Hispania Citerior (eastern Spain), the scholar M. Varro was in Hispania Ulterior (southern Spain). Varro remained in his province, while Afranius and Petreius united their forces in Citerior. Caesar's forces were easily able to cross the Pyrenes, but a standoff soon developed at the town of Ilerda. For a time Caesar suffered from a lack of supplies, but eventually he had the best of the fighting, and in the summer Afranius and Petreius asked for surrender terms. Once again Caesar was generous. The two commanders were allowed to leave (going to join Pompey) and their army was dissolved. Caesar them moved against Varro, but his army also collapsed as Caesar approached, and Varro was forced to surrender.

Elsewhere things didn't go quite as well for Caesar. One of his supporters, G. Scribonius Curio, expelled Cato from Sicily, and then invaded Africa, which was held by Attius Varus. Curio won an initial battle at Utica, and then besieged the city, but he was then defeated and killed by King Juba of Numidia at the battle of the Bagradas River (24 July 49 BC). The province of Africa remained in Republican hands until the final battle of the war.

In the autumn of 49 BC Caesar returned to Rome, forcing the surrender of Massilia on the way. His main task at Rome was to make sure that he was elected as one of the Consuls for 48 C. His first problem was that only the existing consuls could run the election, and they were with Pompey in Greece. M. Lepidus found a solution. Caesar was made dictator for a few days, and conducted the elections himself. Unsurprising he was elected, alongside P. Servilius Isauricus. Caesar then restored the rights of the sons of the victims of Sulla's proscriptions, and recalled a number of people who had been condemned by Pompey. He also attempted to deal with a debt crisis, before after eleven days leaving for Brundisium to resume the war against Pompey.

Pompey and Greece, 49-48 BC

While Caesar had been campaigning in Spain, the senate in exile had moved to Thessalonica. Pompey focused on raising as large an army as possible. Two legions were raised by Lentulus Crus in Asia, and two were coming from Syria under Metellus Scipio. More troops were provided by Rome's client kings in the east, many of whom owed their position to Pompey. Pompey also had a powerful fleet, under Bibulus, Caesar's co-consul and rival in 59 BC. Pompey's troops were able to capture Curicta in Illyria, which was being held by Caesar's men, but were repulsed at Salonae.

Despite Bibulus's best efforts, Caesar managed to cross to Greece with seven legions, but the rest of his army, under Mark Antony, was trapped at Brundisium. Only after the death of Bibulus of natural causes early in 48 BC was Antony able to cross over to Illyria to join Caesar, but his fleet was swept past Caesar and Pompey, and had to land on the far side of Pompey's men. The two armies then became involved in a 'race to the sea' around Dyrrhachium, Pompey attempting to secure as large an area as possible. The two sides then settled down into the siege of Dyrrhachium (March-May 48 BC). This ended in a rare setback for Caesar. Pompey made two attempts to break through the siege lines, the second of which was successful enough to force Caesar to lift the siege (battle of Dyrrhachium, 20 May 48 BC).

Caesar's next move was to head east across Greece, to support his legate Domitius Calvinus, who was threatened by Metellus Scipio's legions coming from Syria. Pompey had two choices - he could have taken the chance to return to Italy and attempt to regain Rome, or he could follow Caesar. He decided not to risk taking the war back to Italy, and followed Caesar.

Caesar and Calvinus soon met up, and then headed east into Thessaly. On the way they quickly besieged Gomphi, on the western border of Thessaly, where their troops sacked the town. The other towns in Thessaly opened their gates to Caesar.

Pompey now came under pressure from the optimates, his more conservative supporters, who didn&rsquot entirely trust him. Pompey was aware that Caesar was still in a difficult position in Greece, and would have preferred to wear him down, but instead he was forced to offer battle. The resulting battle of Pharsalus (9 August 48 BC) effectively ended any realistic chance of a Republican victory in the civil war. Despite being outnumbered Caesar won a major victory. Pompey escaped, but Domitius Ahenobarbus was killed in the battle. In the aftermath of the battle Caesar burned Pompey's correspondence and offered to pardon anyone who asked his forgiveness. Amongst those who chose to chance sides was M. Brutus, later to be one of his assassins. Cicero also decided to give up, and returned to Italy, where he was delayed at Brundisium for some time.

The few remaining Republican leaders fled to North Africa. Cato and Pompey's sons went to Cyrenaica, just to the west of Egypt, where they hoped to meet up with Pompey. Pompey himself went to Lesbos, where he joined his wife and then decided to head for Egypt, where he expected to be supported by the young king Ptolemy XIII. Instead he was murdered on the orders of the young king's advisors as he landed on the Egyptian shore.

Three days later, on 2 October 48 BC, Caesar arrived in Egypt, at the start of a fateful stay. He arrived in the middle of a vicious dispute between the co-rulers, the 21-year old Cleopatra VII Philopater and her younger brother-husband Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (the Ptolomies had adopted the Egyptian custom of marriage within the Royal family). Caesar moved into the Royal palace and announced that he was going to arbitrate in the civil war. At first he shared the palace with Ptolemy, while Cleopatra was denied access to him. Famously she gained access to Caesar by hiding inside a rolled up carpet, which was presented to him.

Caesar was won over by the dramatic gesture, and sided with Cleopatra (nine months later their son Caesarion was born). Ptolomy was furious, and stormed out of the palace. Caesar's two under-strength legions were soon besieged by Ptolomy's larger army, supported by the populace of Alexandria, then the most impressive city in the world. The siege of Alexandria dragged on until March 47 BC, when reinforcements finally reached Egypt. This was an Allied army led by Mithridates of Pergamum. The combined Roman forces were able to defeat the besieging forces (battle of the Nile). Ptolomy was drowned during the battle.

Caesar probably stayed in Egypt for another couple of months after the battle, going on a river tour down the Nile with the by now heavily pregnant Cleopatra. Cleopatra was given another co-monarch, her even younger brother Ptolomy XIV, supported by three legions.

During the long siege of Alexandria the situation in the rest of the Roman Empire had turned against Caesar. Cato had moved west to the province of Africa, where he and the other surviving Republican leaders had managed to raise a powerful army. In Italy Mark Antony was making himself unpopular. After Pharsalus Caesar had been appointed dictator for a year, to cover 47 BC. Antony served as his deputy (master of the horse). He had to leave Rome to deal with a mutiny in Campania, and while he was away Dolabella, then one of the tribune of the plebs, began to campaign for debt relieve, causing disorder in Rome. Antony restored order violently, losing a great deal of his earlier popularity.

The most immediate problem was in Asia Minor. At the end of the Mithridatic Wars, Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates the Great had been left as rule of the Cimmerian Bosporus (the Crimea). He now decided to take advantage of the Roman Civil War to invade his father's old kingdom. He defeated Domitius Calvinus at Nicopolis, and briefly appeared to pose a threat to Roman authority.

Caesar quickly eliminated the threat. From Egypt he moved to Antioch and Syria, and then into Asia Minor. At Zela he easily defeated Pharnaces, leading him to make one of his most famous comments - Veni, Vidi, Vici (I came, I saw, I conquered). He would later use the ease of his victory over Pharnaces to undermine the significance of Pompey's victories over Mithridates.

After defeating Pharnaces, Caesar returned to Rome. He quickly dealt with the mutiny in Campania, partly by pointedly referring to the soldiers as citizens and not fellow soldiers. He dealt with the elections for 47 BC (rather late) and for 46 BC (rather early), and made himself Consul for 46 BC.

África, 46 BC

The Republicans now had a sizable force in Africa. Cato was its leading spirit, but the former consul Metellus Scipio was the official leader of the Republicans, and Labienus the main military figure. They also had access to Pompey's naval squadrons, and the support of King Juba. The Republicans were in contact with supporters in Spain, where Caesar's governor Q. Cassius had made himself almost universally unpopular.

Late in 48 BC Caesar prepared to depart for Africa. One attempt to delay him was made by a Haruspex, one of Rome's diviners, who claimed that disaster would follow if Caesar left before the solstice. Caesar ignored this, and departed from Rome on 25 December, several weeks before the solstice on the then current calendar.

Caesar had a difficult arrival in Africa. He was soon attacked by a larger army under Labienus, in a costly drawn battle at Ruspina. Caesar was helped by Bocchus of Mauretania and P. Sittius, a Roman serving under Bocchus, who invaded Juba's kingdom. Caesar was also able to use propaganda, portraying his enemies as the tool of a barbarian king, to convince some of the Republicans to desert to him. Caesar then besieged the town of Thapsus. The Republicans attempted to lift the siege, but instead suffered a heavy defeat in the resulting battle of Thapsus.

After taking Thapsus, Caesar advanced towards the Republican base at Utica. Cato now realised that his cause was hopeless. After making sure that anyone who wanted to escape had got away, he committed suicide, denying Caesar the chance to pardon him. Metellus Scipio was intercepted while attempting to reach Spain and committed suicide. Juba committed suicide after the battle of Thapsus. However Labienus and Pompey's two sons escaped to Spain, where they managed to establish themselves.

Caesar spent a short time reorganising Africa. Juba's kingdom was split, with part going to Sittius and the Mauretanians, and the rest becoming a Roman province. Several prisoners, who had been pardoned but broken their word not to fight again were executed. He then returned to Rome.

Espanha, 45 BC

Caesar was back in Rome by the end of July, at the start of his longest stay during the Civil War. Part of his time was spent preparing for the celebration of four triumphs in succession, to mark his victories in Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces and Juba. Amongst the enemy leaders on display were Vercingetorix, Cleopatra's younger sister Arsineo and Juba's four year old son. Only Vercingetorix was executed after the triumph.

Towards the end of 46 BC Caesar left for Spain once again, taking one veteran legion with him. This time he was less forgiving. The rebels were treated as unforgivable enemies, and both sides committed atrocities. On one occasion Caesar's men lined their fortifications with the severed heads of their enemies.

Cn Pompeius, Pompey's elder son, caused Caesar some problems by refusing to risk a battle. However eventually he was force to fight, at Munda. This was one of Caesar's hardest fights, but he was able to motivate his men to fight on, and ended up winning a crushing victory. Labienus was killed during the battle, and Cn Pompeius a few days later. Sextus Pompeius managed to escape, and would later prove to be a thorn in the side of the Second Triumvirate, but the battle effectively ended the Great Civil War.

Caesar returned to Rome in October 45 BC. By now his political judgement appears to have been slipping. He celebrated another triumph, this time for his victory over fellow Romans. There were hints that he was considering making himself King, and he had himself appointed Dictator for Life. His actions began to worry many of his former supporters, as well as his pardoned enemies. On the Ides of March, 15 March 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated during a Senate Meeting, three days before he was due to leave for an invasion of Parthia.

The immediate result of the assassination was the renewed outbreak of Civil War. This fell into two clear stages. The first saw the Senate, supported by Caesar's heir Octavian, fight Mark Antony, Caesar's master of the horse. Although Antony was defeated, both of the consuls for the year were killed. In the aftermath of the fighting Octavian changed sides. Antony, Octavian and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate, a much more formal arrangement than the First Triumvirate.

The second stage saw Octavian and Antony cross to Greece to attack the Liberators, Caesar's assassins who had been forced to flee from Italy after their actions didn't meet with the universal approval they appear to have expected. The two main Liberators, Crassus and Brutus, committed suicide after the First battle of Philippi and Second battle of Philippi respectively, leaving Octavian, Antony and Lepidus to split the Roman world between them.

The third stage saw Octavian and Antony clash for control of the entire Roman world. Eventually this rivaly erupted into open warfare. Octavian crossed to the Balkans and defeated Antony and Cleopatra's armies at the naval battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they eventually committed suicide to avoid falling into Octavian's hands. This gave Octavian undisputed control over the Roman world. He proved to be a far more skillful politician than Caesar, or indeed most of his rivals, and managed to set up a system in which he had the reality of power, while keeping the Senate on his side. He was rewarded with the title of Augustus, and became the first Roman Emperor.

Brutus - Caesar's Assassin, Kirsty Corrigan. A well balanced biography of Brutus, one of the more consistent defenders of the Roman Republic, and famously one of Caesar's assassins on the Ides of March. Paints a picture of a man of generally high moral standards (with some flaws in financial matters), but also an over-optimistic plotter, who failed to make any realistic plans for the aftermath of the assassination. Does a good job of tracing Brutus's fairly obscure early years, as well as distinguishing between later legends and historically likely events [read full review]

Mark Antony - A Plain Blunt Man, Paolo de Ruggiero . Nice to have a biography devoted to Mark Antony in his own right rather than as part of someone else's story, but be aware that the author is very biased in favour of Mark Antony and rather stretches the evidence to make his case. Readable and the author knows his sources, but would be better without the bias. [read full review]

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