Índice de assuntos: Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola

Índice de assuntos: Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola

Índice de assuntos: Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola

Guerras e tratadosBatalhasBiografiasArmasConceitos


Guerras e Tratados


Batalhas

Oudenaarde, batalha de, 11 de julho de 1708 (Bélgica)
Ramillies, batalha de, 23 de maio de 1706
Schellenberg, Batalha de, 2 de julho de 1704


Biografias


Armas, exércitos e unidades


Conceitos



Os Tratados da Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola: Um Dicionário Histórico e Crítico

De 1702 a 1714, a Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola afetou grande parte da Europa e partes significativas do Novo Mundo, com batalhas que iam das planícies húngaras aos portos do Rio de Janeiro. A morte do último rei dos Habsburgos da Espanha desencadeou uma luta por seu império. Este livro inclui entradas que analisam os indivíduos que determinaram o curso da guerra, que desempenharam um papel diplomático, econômico ou militar, bem como entradas que analisam as batalhas fundamentais que influenciam o resultado. As disposições dos tratados finais, conhecidos como a Pacificação de Utrecht, são examinadas em detalhes, assim como o significado dessas disposições. Os diplomatas em Utrecht seguiram os princípios de equilíbrio de poder, compensação e legitimidade para moldar a paz. A paz definiu as fronteiras da Europa Ocidental até a convulsão da Revolução Francesa.

O livro começa com uma introdução apontando para o significado das disposições dos tratados. A disposição alfabética das entradas, as numerosas referências cruzadas, as bibliografias no final das entradas, uma tabela genealógica, uma cronologia e o índice tornam este trabalho fácil de usar.


Livros em On Military Matters

1-TPS11 SIMULAÇÕES DE PONTO DE GIRO # 11: Blenheim 1704 DC Britânicos, holandeses, austríacos, prussianos, dinamarqueses e vários aliados alemães de um lado e franceses, bávaros e irlandeses lutando por Luís do outro. Cada unidade no jogo representa uma brigada com cada ponto de força de combate em torno de 400 homens ou 200 cavalos. Um hexágono no mapa equivale a 400 metros. Um turno representa cerca de uma hora de ação e o jogo pode durar até 7 turnos.

A Batalha de Blenheim inclui: Um mapa colorido montado de 11 x 17 polegadas 176 contadores grandes coloridos de 5/8 polegadas e livro de regras de 12 páginas. Nível de habilidade: médio. 1 vol, 12 pgs 2019 EUA, CONTRA AS ODDS
NEW-box, disponível em meados de outubro de 2019. $ 40,00 com desconto de 25% rct

1-75130 Boeri, Gianncarlo SPANISH ARMIES 1688-1697 O CD contém texto junto com imagens coloridas em preto e branco. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
NOVO-CD. $ 30,00

1-75140 Boeri, Gianncarlo EXÉRCITO DO HOLANDÊS DE SAVOIA 1688-1713 Uma edição revisada de seu trabalho sobre o Exército de Sabóia 1688-1713. O título foi alterado para 'Exército do Duque de Sabóia, 1688-1713'.

Embora tenha havido pequenas alterações e acréscimos ao texto, Boeri forneceu notas de rodapé bastante expandidas, o que resultou em um aumento no número de páginas de texto de 27 para 51 páginas. A maior mudança foi a adição de 20 placas coloridas por Robert Hall. 1 vol, 1 pgs. 2012, EUA, DAN SCHOOR
NOVO-CD, edição revisada. $ 20,00

1-11421 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH: SUA VIDA E TEMPOS Excelente biografia, cobre as guerras da sucessão espanhola. Mapas, índice, biblio. 1 vol, 1050 pgs 2002 EUA, UNIVERSIDADE DE CHICAGO
NEW-pb. $ 30,00

1-11422 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH: SUA VIDA E TEMPOS Excelente biografia, cobre as guerras da sucessão espanhola. Mapas, índice, biblio. 1 vol, 1080 pgs 2002 EUA, UNIVERSIDADE DE CHICAGO
NEW-pb. $ 30,00

2-198610 Dorrel, Nick A ÚLTIMA CHANCE DE MARLBOROUGH NA ESPANHA: A Campanha Espanhola de 1710 A Série de Campanhas Militares é um conjunto de livros que mostra de perto as campanhas em vários conflitos. O objetivo é fornecer ao leitor uma visão detalhada de uma parte específica de um conflito, ao invés de tentar descrever todo o conflito ou apenas focar em uma única batalha. A série fornece informações sobre comandantes, exércitos, batalhas da campanha e OOBs. A série é um bom ponto de partida para aqueles interessados ​​em saber mais sobre um conflito específico, seja você um aficionado por história ou um jogador de guerra.

O teatro espanhol foi crucial para o desfecho da Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola e, no entanto, não é muito conhecido. Este livro analisa em detalhes a campanha vital de 1710 na Península, incluindo as cinco ações principais da campanha. Esta campanha foi a última chance para as forças de Marlborough obterem uma vantagem decisiva neste importante teatro. A campanha diminuiu e fluiu antes da derrota total das esperanças de Marlborough e isso provou ser um evento decisivo no resultado da guerra. 1 vol, 132 pgs 2014 EUA, SOBRE ASSUNTOS MILITARES
Capa mole encadernada com fio NOVO. $ 40,00

2-208310 Dorrell, Nick O OUTRO EXÉRCITO DE MARLBOROUGH: O Exército Britânico e as Campanhas da Primeira Guerra da Península, 1702-1712 Um aspecto frequentemente negligenciado da guerra de Marlborough é sua campanha crucial na Espanha e Portugal, também conhecida como a Primeira Guerra da Península de 1702- 1712. Embora esta campanha tenha sido crítica para o resultado da guerra, relativamente pouca informação está disponível sobre ela ou o exército que a lutou. Este trabalho não só fornece uma visão detalhada do exército que lutou nas campanhas espanholas e portuguesas da guerra de Marlborough, mas também oferece uma visão sobre o curso da guerra na Península Ibérica. O objetivo é fornecer mais detalhes e compreensão de uma parte relativamente pouco conhecida de uma guerra que ajudou a moldar e fortalecer a posição da Grã-Bretanha entre os principais jogadores europeus.

Vários capítulos examinam os contingentes nacionais que compunham os exércitos confederados que lutavam na Espanha e em Portugal. O trabalho concentra-se não apenas na contribuição britânica razoavelmente conhecida, mas também no papel igualmente importante dos contingentes menos conhecidos austríacos, holandeses, palatinos, portugueses e espanhóis.

Esses capítulos fornecem informações gerais sobre as unidades envolvidas, sua organização, táticas e outros detalhes relevantes. Em outros capítulos, o trabalho se concentra em detalhes sobre os desenvolvimentos nas campanhas espanholas e portuguesas em cada ano da guerra. Também são fornecidos: detalhes da composição dos exércitos em cada campanha, suas atividades e batalhas, o tamanho das unidades, se conhecido, e mais para cada ano. Dá-se atenção não só ao combate mais famoso em Almanza, mas também às outras batalhas e escaramuças das campanhas ibéricas. 1 vol, 200 pgs 2019 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NOVO-papberback. $ 35,00 com um desconto de 15% rct

1-209300 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WAR MACHINE: 1702-1711 Blenheim, Ramilles, Oudenarde, Malplaquet - muito foi escrito sobre as brilhantes vitórias do exército anglo-holandês do duque de Marlborough sobre os exércitos de Louis XIV da França durante a Guerra de a sucessão espanhola. Também oferece foco nos homens e na organização militar que tornou essas conquistas possíveis - os soldados, os comandantes, a estrutura do exército, administração, logística, engenharia, armas e finanças. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2015 UK, PEN & SWORD
NEW-dj, disponível em meados de agosto de 2015. $ 50,00 com desconto de 15%

1-210350 Falkner, James A GUERRA DE SUCESSÃO ESPANHOLA 1701 - 1714 A Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola, travada entre 1701 e 1714 para decidir quem deveria herdar o trono espanhol, foi um conflito em uma escala sem precedentes, estendendo-se pela maior parte da Europa Ocidental, o alto mar e as Américas.

Em uma narrativa clara e perspicaz, ele descreve e analisa as complexas manobras políticas e uma série de campanhas militares que também envolveram a ameaça representada pelos turcos otomanos no leste e pela Suécia e Rússia no norte. Os combates ocorreram não apenas na Europa, mas nas Américas e Canadá, e em alto mar. Todas as potências europeias, grandes e pequenas, estavam envolvidas - França, Espanha, Grã-Bretanha, Holanda, Áustria e Portugal eram os principais jogadores.

O resultado final de 11 anos de guerra total foi um príncipe francês firmemente estabelecido no trono de Madrid e uma divisão do antigo império espanhol. Mais notavelmente, porém, o poder francês, anteriormente tão dominante, foi contido por quase 90 anos. 1 vol, 280 pgs 2015 UK, PEN & SWORD
NEW-dj. $ 50,00 com desconto de 15%

2-89560 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WARS EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS 1702-1713 Muitos livros foram escritos sobre as famosas vitórias do primeiro duque de Marlborough, mas nenhum dos estudos anteriores realmente se concentrou em como a guerra foi percebida pelos homens e mulheres que participaram - aqueles que vivenciaram a ação em primeira mão. James Falkner reuniu uma seleção vívida de relatos contemporâneos de todos os aspectos da guerra para criar uma imagem panorâmica, mas minuciosamente detalhada, daqueles anos de turbulência.

A história é contada por meio de memórias, cartas, documentos oficiais, despachos, reportagens de jornais e depoimentos de testemunhas oculares dos lados francês e aliado do conflito.

Sua narrativa de ligação fornece uma análise penetrante da estratégia e táticas de guerra na época. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2020 UK, PEN & SWORD BOOKS
NEW-pb, nova edição de capa mole disponível no final de maio de 2020. $ 40,00 com desconto de 15% rct

1-89620 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S SIEGES Análise bem detalhada dos muitos cercos que o duque conduziu. Esboços, desenhos e mapas em P&B dos fortes e campanhas para reduzi-los. Notas do capítulo, biblio, índice. 1 vol, 268 pgs 2007 UK, SPELLMOUNT PRESS
NEW-dj. $ 50,00

1-34280 Foure, Pierre CORES DA INFANTARIA FRANCESA SOB LOUIS XIV-VOL1 Parte de um conjunto de três que cobrem os anos de 1638 a 1715, muitas páginas em preto e branco e (4) páginas coloridas. 1 vol, 32 pgs 1994 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NOVA capa mole. $ 10,00

1-34282 Foure, Pierre CORES DA INFANTARIA FRANCESA SOB LOUIS XIV-VOL2 Parte de um conjunto de três que cobrem os anos de 1638 a 1715, muitas páginas em preto e branco e (4) páginas coloridas. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2000 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NOVA capa mole. $ 10,00

1-75150 Goldberg, Claus-Peter e Robert Hall ARMY OF THE ELECTORATE PALATINE 1690-1716 CD contém texto junto com imagens coloridas em preto e branco. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
NOVO-CD. $ 25,00

1-74530 Grant, C. S. EXÉRCITOS E UNIFORMES DAS GUERRAS DE MARLBOROUGH, A segunda edição combina dois volumes previamente publicados em um enquanto reordena parte do texto e faz algumas pequenas alterações em um formato maior. Abrange os exércitos do norte da Europa mais conhecidos e as batalhas na Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola, e também os exércitos e as principais ações na Espanha, Portugal e Itália. Placas uniformes do falecido Bob Marrion. 1 vol, 152 pgs 2016 UK, PARTIZAN PRESS
NOVA capa dura. $ 52,00

1-211980 Hall, Robert CD UNIFORMES E BANDEIRAS: O CD dos exércitos de Hanover, Celle e Brunswick - 1670-1715 contém informações novas e atualizadas.

Nº de placas de cores:
Hanover: 55: incl. 13 cavalaria, 4 dragões, 19 infantaria
Celle 15: incl. 3 cavalaria, 2 dragões, 8 infantaria
Brunswick 27: incl. 5 cavalaria, 4 dragões, 9 infantaria

No que diz respeito a Hanover, encontramos material extenso, até então desconhecido, tanto em bandeiras e padrões de 1674-1700, bem como informações uniformes muito completas, especialmente para o período de 1682-1694, enquanto um documento significativo escrito pelos coronéis Celle documentou as diferenças entre os exércitos em 1705. 1 vol, 248 pgs 2016 EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 50,00

1-219730 Hall, Robert FLAGS & amp UNIFORMS OF THE FRENCH INFANTRY 1688-1714: 2ª edição (2019) Esta compilação da 2ª edição é um CD (não um livro).

A primeira edição da Infantaria francesa foi publicada em 2001. Em 2015, foi publicado um suplemento com informações adicionais obtidas a partir de pesquisas em arquivos. Esta 2ª edição contém tanto pesquisas novas. Este livro é o estudo mais abrangente sobre infantaria francesa disponível.

Uma série de visitas ao Minutier Central des notaires de Paris nos Archives Nationales em Paris em 2018 gerou a análise e documentação de mais de 190 contratos notariais para uniformes. Mais de 290 regimentos são detalhados em 548 páginas, incluindo todos os regimentos irlandeses, com mais de 102 dos 290 atualizados com novas informações.

O CD da 2ª edição contém todo o texto junto com placas coloridas em preto e branco e 296, das quais 121 são novas ou foram atualizadas. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 65,00 rct

1-220010 Hall, Robert STANDARD & amp UNIFORMS OF FRENCH CAVALRY 1688-1714: 2ª edição (2019) Esta compilação da 2ª edição é um CD (não um livro).

Esta segunda edição contém 258 páginas e 75 placas de cores detalhando mais de 133 unidades. Seria difícil encontrar uma visão mais abrangente da cavalaria francesa no período de 1688-1714. 1 vol, 333 pgs 2019 EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 50,00 rct

1-221170 Hall, Robert GUIDONS & amp UNIFORMS OF FRENCH DRAGOONS 1688-1714: 2ª edição (2019) A primeira edição de French Dragoons foi publicada em 2001. Em 2015, foi publicado um suplemento com informações adicionais obtidas a partir de pesquisas em arquivos. Esta 2ª edição contém tanto pesquisas novas.

Uma série de visitas ao Minutier Central des Notaires de Paris nos Archives Nationales em Paris em 2018 gerou a análise e documentação de contratos notariais para uniformes. Existem 134 páginas de texto, que incluem cópias desses contratos notariais, e 48 gravuras coloridas, muitas das quais ilustram as novas informações obtidas a partir desses contratos. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
NOVO CD, disponível no final de agosto de 2019. $ 40,00 rct

1-75160 Hall, Robert ARMIES OF MECKLENBURG & amp HOLSTEIN-GOTTORP 1650-1719 O CD contém texto junto com imagens coloridas em preto e branco. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
NOVO-CD. $ 25,00

1-80880 Hall, Robert UNIFORMES MILITARES DO ELEITORADO DE COLÓNIA O CD contém (14) PLACAS DE COR 1 vol, 60 pgs 2005 US, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 15,00

1-84610 Hall, Robert BANDEIRAS e UNIFORMES DO EXÉRCITO DE HESSE-KASSELL O CD contém texto junto com páginas em preto e branco de 23 cores. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 25,00

1-85930 Hall, Robert FLAGS & amp UNIFORMS HESSE-DARMSTRADT & amp UPPER RHINE CD contém texto junto com (9) páginas coloridas e (71) páginas de texto em Hesse-Darmstradt 1678-1739 (11) páginas coloridas e (110) páginas de texto que cobre o Círculo do Alto Reno 1664-1734. 1 vol, 201 pgs 2007 EUA, DAN SCHORR
CD-novo. $ 25,00

2-RHDK01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DINAMARCA: I.R. LIVGARDEN TIL FODS FOOT Placa de cores 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH: I.R. Placa de cores PRINCE CARL FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH: I.R. PRÍNCIPE GEORGE FOOT 8,5x11 placa colorida, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DINAMARCA: I.R. 1ª JUTLAND HORSE 8,5x11 placa de cores, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH: I.R. 1ST SEELAND HORSE Placa de cores 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH: I.R. 4º JUTLAND HORSE Placa de cores 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: Placa de cores ROYAL IRISH FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: Placa de cores PORTMORE'S FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: CHURCHILL'S FOOT (Buffs) Placa de cor 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: ORKNEY'S FOOT (Royal Scots) Placa de cores 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: LUMLEY'S HORSE 8,5x11 placa colorida, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: Placa colorida WOOD'S HORSE 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: Placa colorida WOOD'S HORSE 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: DR LEIBREGIMENT OF HORSE 8,5x11 placa colorida, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa colorida KR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: DR VON SONDFELD HORSE Placa de cores 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa de cores IR ANHALT-DESSAU FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa de cores IR VARENNES FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa de cores IR CANITZ FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR07 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: IR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM Placa de cores 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR08 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa colorida IR KRONPRINZ FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR09 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa colorida KR L'OSTANGE HORSE 8,5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR10 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa de cores IR WULFFEN FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR11 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: Placa de cores IR HOLSTEIN-BECK FOOT 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR12 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRÚSSIA: IR LOTTUM, placa colorida KR BRANDENBURG 8.5x11, Cores / Padrões / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMAN01 Hall, Robert DR Schmettau Placa de cor 8,5x11 com Cores / Padrões / Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC01 Hall, Robert CR Tremouille e amp CR Courcillon 8,5x11 placa de cores com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC02 Hall, Robert CR Toulouse & amp CR Royal E 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC03 Hall, Robert CR Royal Cravattes & amp CR Rosen 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC04 Hall, Robert CR Ligondez e amp CR Harcourt 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFD01 Hall, Robert DR Le Roi & amp DR Bretagne 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFG01 Hall, Robert Gendarmes de la Garde Cheveaulegers de la Garde Placa colorida 8,5x11 com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFG02 Hall, Robert 1. Company des Mousquetaires 2. Company des Mou 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI01 Hall, Robert IR Picardie e amp IR Clare 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI02 Hall, Robert IR Gondrin e amp IR Royal Italien 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI03 Hall, Robert IR Alsace & amp IR Sparre 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI04 Hall, Robert IR Gardes Francaises IR Gardes Sui 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI05 Hall, Robert IR La Marck e amp IR Montroux Placa de cor 8,5x11 com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI06 Hall, Robert IR St. Sulpice e amp IR Isenghien 8,5x11 placa de cores com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHG01 Hall, Robert DR Dernath e amp DR Baudissin 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHG02 Hall, Robert IR Barner & amp IR Aderkas 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHK01 Hall, Robert IR Pr Wilhelm e amp IR Pr Ludwig Placa de cores 8,5x11 com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHN01 Hall, Robert IR Bernstorff 1B e amp IR Ranzow 5B 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EUA, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL01 Hall, Robert IR Pallandt 8,5x11 placa de cores com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMNL02 Hall, Robert IR Dutch Guards e IR Nassau 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMNL03 Hall, Robert IR Slangenburg e amp IR Salisch 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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2-RMNL04 Hall, Robert IR Albemarle Placa de cor 8,5x11 com Cores / Padrões / Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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2-RMNL05 Hall, Robert IR Hirzel e amp IR Sturler 8,5x11 placa de cores com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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1-RMNL06 Hall, Robert IR Borthwick Placa de cor 8,5x11 com Cores / Padrões / Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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2-RMNL07 Hall, Robert IR Murray & amp IR Colyear 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL08 Hall, Robert CR Oranje-Friesland & amp CR Driesbergen Placa de cores 8,5x11 com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL09 Hall, Robert DR Dopff & amp CR Wurttemburg 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMPR01 Hall, Robert KR von der Heyden Placa de cor 8,5x11 com Cores / Padrões / Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EUA, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMSP02 Hall, Robert IR Zuniga Placa de cor 8,5x11 com Cores / Padrões / Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

1-RMSP03 Hall, Robert IR Girmaldi e amp IR Lede 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMSP04 Hall, Robert DR Toulongeon 8,5x11 placa colorida com cores / padrões / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EUA, DAN SCHORR
Placa NOVA. $ 8,00

2-75120 Hall, Robert & amp Yves Roumegoux FRANCESA MILITIA, ARTILHARIA & amp BOMBARDIADORES A Artilharia e Bombardeiros Franceses sob Luís XIV - Organização, Bandeiras e Uniformes. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2019 EUA, DAN SCHOOR
NOVO-CD, pequenas alterações na nova edição, disponível no final de agosto de 2019. $ 30,00 rct

1-74820 Hall, Robert e Boeri, Giancarlo UNIFORMES E BANDEIRAS DO EXÉRCITO AUSTRIAL IMPERIAL 1683-1720 CD com mais de 260 páginas e (56) placas coloridas. Esta é uma revisão e atualização completamente nova do Kuhnbooklet com todas as placas 'novas'. 1 vol, 1 pgs. 2009, EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 45,00

1-201440 Hall, Robert e Stanford, Ian e Roumegoux, Yves UNIFORMES E BANDEIRAS DO EXÉRCITO HOLANDÊS E DO EXÉRCITO DE LIEGE 1685-1715 Nova edição revisada com mais de 450 páginas de texto e 70 placas coloridas. 1 vol, 520 pgs 2013 EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 60,00

1-215330 Hattendorf, John MARLBOROUGH: Soldado e Diplomata John Churchill, o primeiro duque de Marlborough, há muito é considerado um dos maiores generais da Grã-Bretanha, bem como uma figura política inglesa chave na primeira década do século XVIII. Ilustrações coloridas por toda parte.

Assunto de vários livros em inglês, Marlborough foi tipicamente visto apenas em termos da história política e militar britânica. Neste livro, 12 principais especialistas do período ampliam a perspectiva avaliando Marlborough nos contextos mais amplos e diversos da situação europeia, o soldado comum no exército britânico, as atividades complementares das marinhas, as diferentes perspectivas dos austríacos, holandeses , Franceses e alemães, bem como no contexto da imprensa popular britânica e das artes visuais. 1 vol, 408 pgs. 2012 HOLANDA, KARWANSARAY
NEW-dj, disponível no final de outubro de 2017. $ 85,00 com desconto de 15%

1-65280 Hoglund, Lars-Eric e Sallnas, Ake GREAT NORTHERN WAR 1700-21: Colors and Uniformes Volume 1 8x11,5 polegadas. Inclui 30 placas coloridas que representam centenas de bandeiras, padrões e uniformes, além de detalhes completos das unidades de cavalaria e infantaria sueca, finlandesa, norueguesa, dinamarquesa e alemã. 1 vol, 158 pgs 2000 SUÉCIA, ACEDIA PRESS
NOVA capa mole, disponível novamente a um preço mais baixo. $ 75,00

1-78440 Hussey, John MARLBOROUGH: O herói de Blenheim Nova biografia concisa do homem e seu gênio militar, o autor descreve, no contexto da época, suas batalhas / campanhas com mais de 40 mapas b / w / illust, biblio 1 vol, 224 pgs 2005 UK, WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON
NEW-dj. $ 28,00 com desconto de 15%

1-74830 Kuhn, agosto revisado por Hall, Robert BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA'S EXÉRCITO SOB FREDERICK 1 ° CD contém texto junto com imagens coloridas em preto e branco. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EUA, DAN SCHORR
NOVO-CD. $ 15,00

1-86680 Litten, Neil RAMILLIES: Obra-prima de Marlborough Novo estudo importante, ilustração colorida, mapas. 1 vol, 230 pgs 2007 RU, PARTIZAN PRESS
NEW-dj. $ 50,00

1-80460 Millner, John Royal Regt de Foot of Ireland COMPENDIUM JOURNAL OF ALL THE MARCHES & amp BATTLES Raro relato em primeira mão, Millner esteve presente em todas as 10 batalhas / cercos 1701-1712, não apenas descreve os eventos, ele também lista as vítimas e o / b's, fonte de primeira linha. 1 vol, 364 pgs 2004 Reino Unido, NAVAL & MILITARY PRES
NEW-pb, fac-símile da edição de 1733. $ 40,00

1-1947619 Mugnai, Bruno O EXÉRCITO IMPERIAL na Era do Príncipe Eugênio de Sabóia 1690-1720: A Cavalaria - Volume 1 O Volume 1 inclui oito páginas coloridas, com muitas ilustrações em preto e branco e mapas. Texto em italiano, mas legendas em inglês para imagens. Todas as placas coloridas têm traduções completas para o inglês.

Eugene, Príncipe de Savoia-Carignano e Conde de Soissons tornou-se general aos 24 anos e marechal de campo aos 27. Ele é considerado o comandante mais famoso da história do exército Imperial e em alguns círculos europeus, considerado 'o imperador secreto. ' Depois de ser rejeitado por Luís XIV da França, Eugene foi para a Áustria e começou uma carreira brilhante no campo de batalha. Esta série de três volumes detalha sua história, organização do exército, equipamento e uniformes da infantaria imperial. 1 vol, 80 pgs. 2012 ITÁLIA, SOLDIER SHOP
NOVO-capa mole, [texto em italiano]. $ 32,00

1-1947620 Mugnai, Bruno O EXÉRCITO IMPERIAL na Idade do Príncipe Eugênio de Sabóia 1690-1720: A Cavalaria - Volume 2 O Volume 2 inclui oito páginas coloridas, com muitas ilustrações em preto e branco e mapas. Texto em italiano, mas legendas em inglês para imagens. Todas as placas coloridas têm traduções completas para o inglês.

Continua a história de Eugene, Príncipe de Savoia-Carignano e Conde de Soissons, suas proezas no campo de batalha e os uniformes do Exército.

1 vol, 80 pgs 2020 ITÁLIA, SOLDIER SHOP
NOVO-capa mole, [texto em italiano]. $ 32,00

1-199200 Owen, John Hely GUERRA NO MAR SOB QUEEN ANNE 1702-1708 Um relato das operações navais britânicas no início do século 18, este livro inclui descrições vivas das figuras importantes da época, extraídas de extensa pesquisa nos registros originais. Ilustrado com mapas e retratos, contém apêndices úteis sobre a organização da Marinha e a composição da frota. 1 vol, 360 pgs. 2012 UK, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
NOVA capa mole. $ 41,00

1-2078563 Paoletti, Ciro ITÁLIA, PIEDMONT E A GUERRA DA SUCESSÃO ESPANHOLA: 1701-1712 A Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola é bem conhecida em inglês no que diz respeito a Flandres e Alemanha, nem tanto a respeito da Espanha, nem um pouco da Itália. A frente italiana era tão importante que os franceses a consideravam tão importante quanto a alemã, e ali colocaram seus melhores generais. Guilherme III o considerou muito mais importante do que a Espanha e, apesar de não ter nenhum exército britânico lá, após a morte do rei Guilherme, Londres comprometeu-o a 1/10 de suas despesas de guerra.

Foi considerado tão importante em Viena que o imperador enviou para lá seu melhor general. Por último, foi a frente onde todos os franceses que esperam submeter à Europa morreram em Torino em 1706, após o primeiro ferimento dramático que sofreram em Blenheim em 1704. 185 ilustrações, mapas e planos em preto e branco, placas coloridas de 16 páginas
1 vol, 356 pgs 2021 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NOVA capa mole. $ 50,00 com um desconto de 15% rct

1-LEG1703 Pole, Steve BLENHEIM 1704: 13 de agosto de 1704 A Batalha de Blenheim 1704 é um jogo de nível tático para dois jogadores que cobre uma das batalhas cruciais durante a Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola. Um jogador assume o papel de Marlborough, comandando as forças britânicas e aliadas, e o outro de Tallard, liderando os franco-bávaros. Em Blenheim, Marlborough foi confrontado por uma força superior franco-bávara em uma forte posição defensiva. Como a grande vitória de Aníbal em Canas, Blenheim foi conquistada pela implementação bem-sucedida de um plano ousado e criativo. Os flancos das forças franco-bávaras foram imobilizados por ataques furiosos com probabilidades desfavoráveis ​​que desnudaram seu centro de tropas reimplantadas para apoiar as asas duramente pressionadas. Então Marlborough lançou sua cavalaria para esmagar o que restava do centro franco-bávaro e dividir o exército de Tallard em dois. A ameaça de que a França de Luís XIV viria a dominar a Europa havia acabado.

O Seven Hex System (SHS) deriva seu nome do mapa que é dividido em áreas compostas por sete hexágonos que permitem ao jogador adotar várias posições dentro de uma área para refletir diferentes formações táticas, tornando assim mais provável que um ataque tenha sucesso ou defesa as unidades permanecerão firmes. O SHS incorpora vários recursos exclusivos destinados a replicar de forma simples e intuitiva as opções disponíveis para um comandante (o jogador de guerra) de um grande exército. Assim, embora o comandante tenha total liberdade para traçar um plano, e bastante ao posicionar unidades que ainda não encontraram o inimigo, uma vez que a batalha é travada, as opções tornam-se cada vez mais limitadas e eventos imprevistos podem desempenhar um papel na determinação do resultado. No entanto, mesmo em um nível tático, as decisões de um comandante são cruciais para moldar os eventos. A chave para o sucesso é um plano sólido com uma margem de erro que permita azar, o desdobramento astuto de unidades de forma a ser capaz de implementar esse plano e o compromisso atempado de reservas.

Contém: mapa de 22 x 34 polegadas, 88 contadores, dois recursos de jogo e livro de regras de 20 páginas.
1 vol, 1 pgs. 2017 EUA, LEGION WARGAMES LLC
Caixa NOVA, disponível no final de março de 2021. $ 56,00 com desconto de 10% rct

1-19690 Sapherson, CA. FORÇAS DA COROA SUECA: 1688-1721 livreto de 8,5 x 5,5 polegadas cobre organização, regimentos de pé, cavalo e dragões, artilharia, bandeiras e estandartes, Marinha e distribuição de forças suecas em 1701. Inclui 32 mãos negras e brancas desenhadas à mão de bandeiras com detalhes de cor que o acompanham. 1 vol, 36 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NOVA capa mole. $ 8,00

1-20930 Sapherson, CA. CAVALARIA FRANCESA, THE: 1688-1715 Equipamento, normas, organização, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NOVA capa mole. $ 8,00

1-20950 Sapherson, CA. EXÉRCITOS MARLBURIANOS, 1701-1721 Listas do exército para (42) países, Ansbach-Baureuth a Wurzburg, biblio. 1 vol, 72 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $10.00

1-20980 Sapherson, C.A. IMPERIAL INFANTRY, THE:1691-1714 Equipment, standards, organization, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $ 8,00

1-22370 Sapherson, C.A. DANISH ARMY THE: 1699-1715 Covers organization, uniforms, and standards, and includes black and white drawings, appendix, and a bibliography. 1 vol, 40 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover, back in print . $ 8,00

2-15370 Schorr, Dan SWEDISH COLORS & STANDARDS OF THE GREAT NORTHERN W 8x11, packed with flag details & more, biblio. 1 vol, 64 pgs 1987 VA, EDITIONS BROKAW
NEW-softcover . $12.00

1-75420 Stanford, Ian MARLBOROUGH GOES TO WAR:Blenheim-Campaign & Battle The most detailed O/B's for the opposing armies onthe day of battle, appendicies, biblio, index. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2004 UK, PIKE & SHOT SOCIETY
NEW-pb, 2nd edition . $ 22,00

2-72070 Watson, J.N.P. MARLBOROUGH'S SHADOW:Life of the 1st Earl Cadogan This is the story of Marlborough's 'right hand',his Chief of Staff, Quartermaster General andChief of Intelligence, b/w illust, biblio, index. 1 vol, 224 pgs 2003 LONDON, LEO COOPER BOOKS
NEW-dj . $ 20,00


15th Century - The Beginning of the Spanish Empire

The king of Aragon Ferdinand and Castile's Isabella got married, unifying two neighboring kingdoms into one. At that time it was not known as Spain yet, and it wouldn't be for a few years still, but it was the beginning of something great. Isabella and Ferdinand were known as the Catholic Monarchs. Their religious belief is, supposedly, what pushed them to reconquer Andalusia, with its centre in Granada, the southern part of the Peninsula, for quite a few centuries in moorish hands. When this was accomplished they were ready for more.

While Spain expanded south of its own territory, with the conquest of Melilla in the North of Africa, an even bigger chance presented itself in form of a Genovese sailor, Christopher Columbus, who had a sailing project to find a new route to the Indies. Isabella was interested and funded his voyage. As luck would have it, he did not find what he was looking for, but as luck would have it, something much bigger and that would bring much wealth to Spain in the future: a new continent, today known as America. And so the Spanish Empire começa.


Utrecht, 1713. A Peace possible for Europe

The Treaties of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession, a conflict that in recent years has been the subject of intense historical debate. The Peace of Utrecht is now analyzed from different perspectives. During negotiations, Philip V of Spain tried to impose their conditions, but eventually he had to accept the agreement of Louis XIV of France with the Maritime powers. The Spanish king had to renounce to the French throne –something h e never really admitted–, and lost his Spanish territories in Europe. He kept instead the Empire in America, being the content of the Treaties regarding colonial trade the subject of a growing historiographical interest. This contribution analyzes also the position of Charles VI of Austria, who claimed the Spanish throne and faced the peace negotiations from a position of apparent strength –although in the final stage of the war he was guided by conflicting interests regarding the rigid defense of his two main scenarios: Catalonia and Italy. In Utrecht-Rastatt, Spanish Habsburg hegemony in Italy was transferred to the Habsburgs of Vienna and this new domain was interpreted in terms of continuity. The Peace of Utrecht is considered a major European peacekeeping project, but it failed to forget a conflict that still remains close in memory.


War over Italy

It is rare that the victims of war are put into the limelight – reports usually speak only of ‘glorious’ or ‘tragic’ battles – but one man’s grim experience of war at Solferino moved him to found a humanitarian relief organization.

Horace Vernet: The French under the command of Napoleon III attacking with cavalry and infantry at Solferino, painting, 19th century

The war in Italy against Piedmont-Sardinia and France led to the Habsburgs losing Lombardy, acquired in 1714 at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, to Piedmont in 1859. Venetia had been given to the Habsburgs in the course of the Napoleonic wars in compensation for their temporary loss of Lombardy, which had gone to the Corsican Napoleon. The Congress of Vienna confirmed Habsburg possession of both provinces. As early as 1848 Piedmont-Sardinia had attempted to conquer Lombardy, but had been defeated by the Habsburg commander Field Marshal Radetzky. Piedmont-Sardinia finally achieved victory over the Habsburgs through alliance with France, thus opening up the path to the national unification of Italy.

The infamous high point of this war was the battle of Solferino, in which Austria suffered their decisive defeat on 24 June 1859. The horrors of this battle, which were reckoned with by Emperor Franz Joseph (even though he himself was ‘not conscious of any guilt’), were described by the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant, an eyewitness, as follows: ‘It is a terrible man-to-man battle. Soldiers are treading each other underfoot, knocking each other down with their rifle butts, smashing open their opponents’ heads and slicing open their stomachs with sabre or bayonet … Even the wounded defend themselves to the last. When they have no weapon, they seize their opponent and bite his throat open. Elsewhere … the cavalry carves its way over the dead and dying … bodies are turned into formless masses. The earth is literally soaked in blood, and the ground is bespattered with unrecognizable human remains.’ These terrible experiences motivated Dunant to found the Red Cross, which today is one of the world’s largest humanitarian relief organizations.


4.5 Wars for Empire

Wars for empire composed a final link connecting the Atlantic sides of the British Empire. Great Britain fought four separate wars against Catholic France from the late 1600s to the mid-1700s. Another war, the War of Jenkins’ Ear, pitted Britain against Spain. These conflicts for control of North America also helped colonists forge important alliances with native peoples, as different tribes aligned themselves with different European powers.

GENERATIONS OF WARFARE

Generations of British colonists grew up during a time when much of North America, especially the Northeast, engaged in war. Colonists knew war firsthand. In the eighteenth century, fighting was seasonal. Armies mobilized in the spring, fought in the summer, and retired to winter quarters in the fall. The British army imposed harsh discipline on its soldiers, who were drawn from the poorer classes, to ensure they did not step out of line during engagements. If they did, their officers would kill them. On the battlefield, armies dressed in bright uniforms to advertise their bravery and lack of fear. They stood in tight formation and exchanged volleys with the enemy. They often feared their officers more than the enemy.

Clique e explore

Read the diary of a provincial soldier who fought in the French and Indian War on the Captain David Perry Web Site hosted by Rootsweb. David Perry’s journal, which includes a description of the 1758 campaign, provides a glimpse of warfare in the eighteenth century.

Most imperial conflicts had both American and European fronts, leaving us with two names for each war. For instance, King William’s War (1688–1697) is also known as the War of the League of Augsburg. In America, the bulk of the fighting in this conflict took place between New England and New France. The war proved inconclusive, with no clear victor (Figure 4.16).

Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) is also known as the War of Spanish Succession. England fought against both Spain and France over who would ascend the Spanish throne after the last of the Hapsburg rulers died. In North America, fighting took place in Florida, New England, and New France. In Canada, the French prevailed but lost Acadia and Newfoundland however, the victory was again not decisive because the English failed to take Quebec, which would have given them control of Canada.

This conflict is best remembered in the United States for the French and Native raid against Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 1704. A small French force, combined with a native group made up of Catholic Mohawks and Abenaki (Pocumtucs), attacked the frontier outpost of Deerfield, killing scores and taking 112 prisoners. Among the captives was the seven-year-old daughter of Deerfield’s minister John Williams, named Eunice. She was held by the Mohawks for years as her family tried to get her back, and became assimilated into the tribe. To the horror of the Puritan leaders, when she grew up Eunice married a Mohawk and refused to return to New England.

In North America, possession of Georgia and trade with the interior was the focus of the War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739–1742), a conflict between Britain and Spain over contested claims to the land occupied by the fledgling colony between South Carolina and Florida. The war got its name from an incident in 1731 in which a Spanish Coast Guard captain severed the ear of British captain Robert Jenkins as punishment for raiding Spanish ships in Panama. Jenkins fueled the growing animosity between England and Spain by presenting his ear to Parliament and stirring up British public outrage. More than anything else, the War of Jenkins’ Ear disrupted the Atlantic trade, a situation that hurt both Spain and Britain and was a major reason the war came to a close in 1742. Georgia, founded six years earlier, remained British and a buffer against Spanish Florida.

King George’s War (1744–1748), known in Europe as the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), was fought in the northern colonies and New France. In 1745, the British took the massive French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia (Figure 4.17). However, three years later, under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Britain relinquished control of the fortress to the French. Once again, war resulted in an incomplete victory for both Britain and France.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

The final imperial war, the French and Indian War (1754–1763), known as the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) in Europe, proved to be the decisive contest between Britain and France in America. It began over rival claims along the frontier in present-day western Pennsylvania. Well-connected planters from Virginia faced stagnant tobacco prices and hoped expanding into these western lands would stabilize their wealth and status. Some of them established the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1748, and the British crown granted the company half a million acres in 1749. However, the French also claimed the lands of the Ohio Company, and to protect the region they established Fort Duquesne in 1754, where the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers met.

The war began in May 1754 because of these competing claims between Britain and France. Twenty-two-year-old Virginian George Washington, a surveyor whose family helped to found the Ohio Company, gave the command to fire on French soldiers near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. This incident on the Pennsylvania frontier proved to be a decisive event that led to imperial war. For the next decade, fighting took place along the frontier of New France and British America from Virginia to Maine. The war also spread to Europe as France and Britain looked to gain supremacy in the Atlantic World.

The British fared poorly in the first years of the war. In 1754, the French and their native allies forced Washington to surrender at Fort Necessity, a hastily built fort constructed after his attack on the French. In 1755, Britain dispatched General Edward Braddock to the colonies to take Fort Duquesne. The French, aided by the Potawotomis, Ottawas, Shawnees, and Delawares, ambushed the fifteen hundred British soldiers and Virginia militia who marched to the fort. The attack sent panic through the British force, and hundreds of British soldiers and militiamen died, including General Braddock. The campaign of 1755 proved to be a disaster for the British. In fact, the only British victory that year was the capture of Nova Scotia. In 1756 and 1757, Britain suffered further defeats with the fall of Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry (Figure 4.18).

The war began to turn in favor of the British in 1758, due in large part to the efforts of William Pitt, a very popular member of Parliament. Pitt pledged huge sums of money and resources to defeating the hated Catholic French, and Great Britain spent part of the money on bounties paid to new young recruits in the colonies, helping invigorate the British forces. In 1758, the Iroquois, Delaware, and Shawnee signed the Treaty of Easton, aligning themselves with the British in return for some contested land around Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1759, the British took Quebec, and in 1760, Montreal. The French empire in North America had crumbled.

The war continued until 1763, when the French signed the Treaty of Paris . This treaty signaled a dramatic reversal of fortune for France. Indeed, New France, which had been founded in the early 1600s, ceased to exist. The British Empire had now gained mastery over North America. The Empire not only gained New France under the treaty it also acquired French sugar islands in the West Indies, French trading posts in India, and French-held posts on the west coast of Africa. Great Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War meant that it had become a truly global empire. British colonists joyously celebrated, singing the refrain of “Rule, Britannia! / Britannia, rule the waves! / Britons never, never, never shall be slaves!”

In the American colonies, ties with Great Britain were closer than ever. Professional British soldiers had fought alongside Anglo-American militiamen, forging a greater sense of shared identity. With Great Britain’s victory, colonial pride ran high as colonists celebrated their identity as British subjects.

This last of the wars for empire, however, also sowed the seeds of trouble. The war led Great Britain deeply into debt, and in the 1760s and 1770s, efforts to deal with the debt through imperial reforms would have the unintended consequence of causing stress and strain that threatened to tear the Empire apart.


Watteau’s Peacefully Bittersweet War Scenes

One of the most naturally gifted painters in the history of Western art, Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) has been beloved for his bucolic, operatic scenes of Rococo frivolity and elegant hedonism known as fêtes galantes. In his masterpiece “Pilgrimage to the Isle Cythera” (1717), aristocratic lovers attended to by fluttering cupids prepare to set off in a golden boat for the fabled island of love, the birthplace of Aphrodite. With his delicate, sensuously flickering touch, lush colors and luminous atmospheres, Watteau anticipated Impressionism, and his dreamlike visions of erotic yearning and melancholic hypersensitivity inspired the 20th-century Surrealists.

What are not so famous are paintings that first drew the attention of discerning collectors to Watteau, pictures focused on the lives of common soldiers in a time of war that he made between 1709 and 1715. While the military subject matter differs markedly from that of the fêtes galantes, there’s an allusive, bittersweet poetry about these early works that looks forward to the later scenes of pastoral dalliance. Of the seven such works known to have survived, four are featured along with 13 related drawings in “Watteau’s Soldiers: Scenes of Military Life in Eighteenth-Century France,” a captivating exhibition at the Frick Collection. Organized by Aaron Wile, a curatorial fellow at the Frick, it’s the first exhibition devoted to this subject.

Considering the subject matter, these works appear remarkably nonviolent. Ranging in width from about 12 inches to 20 inches, the paintings depict scenes far behind the front lines of battle. If you had only these images to go by, you wouldn’t know there was a war going on, much less one as horrendously bloody as the War of the Spanish Succession, an 18th-century worldwide conflict over France’s King Louis XIV’s attempt to take over the Spanish empire after the death of King Charles II of Spain.

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Made from life in red chalk, the drawings represent soldiers in tricorn hats, knee-length coats, knee-high socks and pointy shoes. They’re shown standing, lying down, kneeling and on horseback. They carry muskets, but they’re not shooting or bayoneting. Nor do their sketchily rendered faces reveal aggression, pain or fear. Watteau seems more interested in their clothes and he poses them in their humanity. They’re like mannequins animated by his wonderfully deft touch. In the studio, Watteau used these figures like paper dolls, translating them into paint on canvas and composing oddly disjunctive scenes that seem at once ordinary and mysterious.

The painting “The Portal of Valenciennes” (circa 1710-11) depicts seven soldiers gathered in a shady space near an old city wall. One is lying down napping, two are sitting and smoking pipes and the others, standing and bearing muskets, seem to be engaged in desultory conversation. In the hazy, blue distance, three more soldiers appear on a bridge leading to ancient buildings partly overgrown by plants, and a single sentry resembling a stone statue stands out on a rooftop against the sky. What is specifically going on, what these people are talking about and what they might be thinking is hard to say. Unlike neo-Classical paintings of the day, in which figures and their relationships were articulated with unnaturally glassy precision, Watteau’s paintings convey a feeling that other people are unfathomably mysterious.

In his excellent catalog essay, Mr. Wile sees in Watteau a shift in ideas about representing human psychology. Seventeenth-century neo-Classicists thought that a person’s character and inner life was revealed in his or her expressions. Mr. Wile writes about the influential academician and court painter Charles Le Brun, who believed that “once the mechanisms of the soul’s movements and their resulting effects on the exterior were discovered, the face could become a legible, because universal, sign of emotion.” Le Brun created a catalog of facial expressions that became widely popular as an aid for painters and sculptors.

The faces in Watteau’s paintings, however, are not transparently expressive. Like the faces of dolls with dots for eyes, they are, observes Mr. Wile, “remarkable for their opacity their faces reveal nothing about the contents of their minds, about their thoughts, emotions or desires.” Yet there’s something truthful in that obscurity, for who in our post-Freudian times would deny that faces — even those of our nearest and dearest — hide as much as they expose? In Watteau’s art, this psychological inscrutability extends to whole paintings, whose visible surfaces imply depths you can only guess at.

“The Halt” (circa 1710) arrays across the foreground 10 people resting under a spreading tree: seven soldiers and three women, one in drab, commoner’s garb — a soldier’s wife, maybe — and two in fancy gowns painted in jewel-bright colors who might be wives, lovers or prostitutes. The soldiers, one of whom has his arm in a sling and his head bandaged, appear exhausted. With its dreamy mood of ennui, it seems more than just a genre scene. It’s like a stop in an allegorical journey of life.

“The Supply Train” (circa 1715) feels like purgatory. Two women highlighted in the center sit on the ground next to a large kettle that is suspended over a campfire, while one tends to a baby in a cradle. An emaciated white pack horse stands behind them. To the right, a third woman sits with her back to us in the company of two reclining soldiers, one with his chin in hand gazing into space or, perhaps, into her eyes. A small dog sleeps in the immediate foreground next to a drum and a musket painted with miniaturist precision. In the distance, smoke rises beyond a ramshackle tent, and further afield more soldiers appear enshrouded by a misty gloom like ghosts.

The only painting representing concerted action is “The Line of March” (circa 1710). We see from behind a crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback funneling between stands of trees. They evidently are heading toward a battle, marked by a glowing conflagration far away near the horizon. There’s a processional, almost mythic feeling, as if they all were on a pilgrimage and that distant burst of light mystically beckoned them to an otherworldly end.


Advisor events [ edit ]

Ignacio de Loyola

Ignacio de Loyola was born in 1491 into a Basque noble family. He served as a soldier under Antonio Manrique de Lara, the Viceroy of Navarre - a Kingdom that Spain had conquered in 1512 - and was wounded in the Battle of Pamplona. When the French army, supporting the expelled Navarrese monarchy, stormed the city on May 20, 1521, Loyola was hit by a cannonball that severely injured both his legs. During the long and painful recovery, Ignacio read a translated version of Ludolph of Saxony's 'De Vita Christi' - a commentary on the life of Jesus that had a great influence on Loyola. He abandoned his military life and decided to devote himself entirely to serving God. In 1534 he and six companions formed the Society of Jesus, commonly known as the Jesuits, devoted to opposing heresy and actively promoting the counter-reformation.

The year is between 1521 and 1556.

  • Gain 50 administrative power
  • Gain 25 papal influence
  • Gain skill 2 Theologian advisor named Ignacio de Loyola (50% cheaper to employ)

Baltasar de Zuniga

Baltasar de Zuniga came from a powerful Spanish noble family. He served Philip III as ambassador to Brussels, Paris and Vienna between 1599 to 1617. In the latter position he was instrumental in Spain's intervention in the Thirty Years War. In 1618 he managed to remove the Duke of Lerma as Philip III's key advisor, a position he then overtook himself. De Zuniga's nephew, Olivares, was placed in the household of Prince Philip - later Philip IV - to assure continued dominance at the royal court.

The year is between 1591 and 1622.

  • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
    • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

    Olivares

    The Duke of Olivares led the Spanish government between 1621 and 1643, under King Philip IV (1621-1665) whom he was enjoying the favor. He was devious and cunning leader, he involved Spain in the Thirty Years War alongside the Imperials and had the war with Holland renewed. This proved disastrous and precipitated Spanish decline, with secession of both Catalonia (reunited 1652) and Portugal in 1640. Under his governments, poetry, literature (Calderon) and painting (El Greco, Velasquez, and Murillo) prospered and Spanish modes and customs spread across Europe.

    The year is between 1617 and 1645.

    Set country flag SPA_had_event_3711

    • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
      • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

      Alberoni

      Born in 1664 the son of a gardener in Fiorenzuela (near Placentia, Italy), Giulio Alberoni owned his political career and success to the Duke of Vendôme, the French general whom he served in Italy, France and Spain. Agent of the Duke of Parma, he facilitated the wedding of Philip V of Spain with Elizabeth Farnese and become a Cardinal in 1717. His bellicose policy in Spain had him expelled in 1719. He was cunning and sly, but Spain did not have the resources needed to fulfill his ambitious plan. The Age of Spanish Supremacy was long gone.

      The year is between 1694 and 1752.

      • Gain 100 diplomatic power
      • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
        • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

        Jose Moñino

        After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain (1767), Moñino was sent to Rome as ambassador to obtain the papal suppression of the Society of Jesus. He was ennobled (1773) for the success of his mission. In 1776 Charles III appointed him chief minister. Under Conde de Floridablanca, as he was simply known in Spain, the Spanish enlightened despotism reached its peak, and his internal reforms, notably in finance, helped centralize the state. This, however, brought him into conflict with especially the Aragonese faction at court who accused him of embezzlement. After serving a three-year sentence he withdrew from public life. At the age of eighty he made a comeback into political life as he accepted the title of President of the Supreme Central and Governmental Junta that led the defense against Napoleon in 1808.

        The year is between 1758 and 1808.

        • Gain 100 administrative power
        • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
          • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

          Isabela de Castela

          While not the primary candidate for the throne few can deny the talents and virtues of the young princess Isabella. As a daughter of the powerful Trastamara family she has managed to secure powerful allies through marriage who support her claim to our throne. Few can tell what the future has in store for our country but even for those who are unhappy with the rule of [Root.Monarch.GetName] Isabella is held to be a given candidate to be [Root.Monarch.GetHerHis] successor.

          • É Castile or Spain if Castile does not exist
          • Does not have a regency.
          • Government type is a monarchy.
          • Government reform allow heirs.
          • Is not the lesser partner in a personal union.
          • Does not have the Castilian Civil War disaster.

          The year is between 1450 and 1504.

          Get a new, 23 years old, female heir Isabella do de Trastámara dynasty with:

          • 95 claims strength,
          • 5 administrative skill,
          • 6 diplomatic skill,
          • 3 military skill.
          • has Castillian culture.
          • tem ‘Expansionist’ personality.
          • Gain 100 administrative power.
          • Gain 100 diplomatic power.
          • Gain 100 military power.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .
          • Gain access to a female discounted statesman advisor with skill 2 nomeado Isabel de Trastámara.

          La Malinche

          Born near the border between the Aztec Empire and the Mayan-speaking Yucatan Peninsula, La Malinche was sold into slavery by her family and eventually given to us as tribute. While she initially only spoke Nahuatl and Mayan dialects, but no [Root.GetAdjective], we had an interpreter who spoke [Root.GetAdjective] and some Mayan, setting up a relay until she had learned enough [Root.GetAdjective] to translate on her own. As translator and active participant in the Conquest, La Malinche was so prominent that she was almost invariably portrayed accompanying the conquistadors in native sources. Conquistadors agreed that she was critical to the expedition, with at least one describing her as the second most important contributor after God himself.

          • é Spain , has its capital in Europe and has discovered Central America or Mexico,
          • has a capital in Europe and owns any province in Central America or Mexico.

          The year is between 1500 and 1600.

          • Gain access to a female discounted diplomat with skill 2 nomeado La Malinche.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .

          Gain a new female conquistador named La Malinche com:

          Juana Inés de la Cruz

          The Tenth Muse', Juana Inés de la Cruz is called, is a self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school and a Hieronymite nun. She became a nun to be able to study as she wished, she wanted 'to have no fixed occupation which might curtail my freedom to study.'. The monastery's library has grown with Juana Inés de la Cruz's collection of books and writings. She has defended women's right to education in her letter 'Respuesta a Sor Filotea' - 'Reply to Sister Philotea', something that has brought the attention of many clerical men and their condemnation of her.

          The year is between 1650 and 1700.

          • Gain access to a female discounted statesman with skill 2 nomeado Juana Inés de la Cruz.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .

          Gain the “Juana Ines de la Cruz” country modifier for 20 years, giving:

          Inés de Suárez

          Born in Plasencia, Extremadura, Spain, Inés de Suárez came to South America to find her husband only to find that he died before she reached the New World. She became part of Pedro de Valdivia's expedition who set out to establish the capital of the territory. Suárez treated the sick and wounded, found water for them in the desert, and saved Valdivia when one of his rivals tried to undermine his enterprise and take his life. The city was founded in a fertile vally with an abundance of fresh water but also many natives who disapproved of the new settlers. Inés de Suárez took charge and defended the city against a native attack. Clad in a coat of mail, a helmet and a hide cloak over her shoulders, she rallied the soldiers on her white horse and encouraged them with words of praise. She led the men herself and the natives was driven away from the town. Her bravery led to a victory, and had it not been for her, the city would have fallen and the colonial expansion thwarted.

          The year is between 1507 and 1580.

          Gain access to a female discounted colonial governor with skill 2 nomeado Ines de Suarez.

          Gain a new female conquistador named Ines de Suarez com:

          Gain a new female general named Ines de Suarez com:


          Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola

          o Guerra da Sucessão Espanhola (1702-13) was a European war the North American portion of this war was Queen Anne's War. The war was fought over the European balance of power the Spanish King Charles II had willeded his kingdom to Philip V, a grandson of the French King Louis XIV. A coalition thus fought the war in order to prevent a merging of Spain and France. The war was concluded by the Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714).

          Origens

          King Charles II of Spain was an invalid from a very young age, and it was clear that he would never produce an heir. The issue of who would rule the Spanish kingdoms after his death became quite contentious. Through his mother Maria Theresa of Spain, an older sister of Charles II, the Dauphin, only legitimate son of Louis XIV, was the most direct heir, but he was a problematic choice: as the heir to the French throne, if he gained both crowns, it would amount to an annexation of Spain and her vast colonial empire by France, at a time when France was already powerful enough to threaten the European balance of power.

          The alternative candidates were Emperor Leopold I, a first cousin of the late king and Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria. The former presented similarly formidable problems, for Leopold's success would have reunited the powerful Spanish-Austrian Habsburg empire of the 16th century. Although Leopold and Louis were both willing to defer their claims to a younger line of their family - Leopold to his younger son Archduke Charles and Louis to the Dauphin's younger son, the Duc d'Anjou, the Bavarian prince remained a less threatening candidate. As a result, Joseph Ferdinand was the favored choice of England and the Netherlands.

          The War of the Grand Alliance, with essentially the same groupings of countries fighting over different issues, had come to an end just as the Spanish succession was becoming critical. War exhaustion led England and France to agree on the First Partition Treaty, which designated Joseph Ferdinand as heir, in return for which the Dauphin and Archduke Charles received territory in Italy.

          Joseph Ferdinand died abruptly the next year, which led to the Second Partition Treaty. Under the terms of that agreement, Charles was to become heir, but the Italian territories that had been parcelled out amongst the two men would now go entirely to France. While France, The Netherlands, and England were all happy with the new arrangement, Austria was not and vied for the entire Spanish inheritance. While the wrangling continued, Charles II unexpectedly spoke out and bequeathed his empire to Anjou, thus keeping the two thrones separate. Louis backed out of the treaty, his grandson was crowned King as Philip V, and the remaining interested parties acquiesced with misgivings.

          Unfortunately, Louis overplayed his hand. He threatened a mercantilist policy in the Spanish/French dominions (thus cutting England and Holland off from Spanish trade) and recognized Philip as his heir, passing over the Dauphin and the Dauphin's eldest son. In 1701, following the death of James II of England, a pensioner at Louis' court, Louis recognized his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender", as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, thus alienating the English. The war began slowly, with Austrian forces under Prince Eugene of Savoy invading the Spanish territories in Italy. France soon intervened, which in turn brought in England, Holland and most of the German states. Minor powers Bavaria, Portugal, and (perversely) Savoy sided with France and Spain.

          Course of the War

          There were two main theaters of the war in Europe: Spain itself and West-Central Europe, especially the Low Countries (although there was also important fighting in Italy and Germany). The latter proved the more important, as Eugene and the English commander, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough distinguished themselves as military commanders. At first, France was successful in the Alsace, and threatened the Austrian capital, but the two generals managed to link up in Bavaria and won the Battle of Blenheim. France's trans-Rhine ambitions were crushed, and the French were forced into a defensive posture. Bavaria was knocked out of the war, and Portugal and Savoy changed sides.

          In Spain, Valencia and Catalonia switched side in favour of the Austrian pretender, Charles. A British fleet, sent to support Catalans, captured Gibraltar, a possession they held throughout the Siege of Gibraltar and hold to this day.

          Marlborough and Eugene split forces again, with the former going to the Netherlands, and the latter to Italy. Over the next two years, each drove the French back from those territories, with Marlborough winning the notable Battle of Ramillies.

          In 1707, April 25, Batle of Almansa (Valencian country) Austriacist army was defeated by the Borbonic army. Then the war in Spain settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not emerge.

          The French fought back, and managed to stall Eugene's invasion into the south of the country, and Marlborough got caught up in an endless succession of fortresses in and around Flanders. In 1708, Eugene and Marlborough once again managed to link up, and defeated the French again at the Battle of Oudenarde. An attempt to march on Paris resulted in the Battle of Malplaquet, which was won by the two generals but at such a cost to their forces that this final invasion had to be called off.

          Peace

          Britain began to get cold feet, too, as an over-decisive victory for Austria would be almost as bad for their interests as one for the French and Spanish. Marlborough fell out of grace with the English (or rather, now, British) crown and with the new Tory government and was recalled. Peace negotiations with France led to the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, in which England, Holland, and France ceased fighting with one another, and Great Britain left the Catalans alone to fight for themselves.

          In 1714, September 11, Barcelona surrendered to the Borbonic army after a long siege. The Franco-Austrian hostilities lumbered on until September 1714, before the signing of the Treaty of Baden.

          With the Peace of Utrecht, the wars to prevent French hegemony that had dominated the 17th century were over for the time being. Philip became the Spanish king, but was removed from the French succession. Louis XIV also agreed to stop supporting the Stuart claim to the throne of England. The Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Milan were ceded to Austria Sicily (replaced by Sardinia in 1720) was ceded to Savoy Britain was given the exclusive right to slave trading in Spanish America Gibraltar and Minorca were transferred from Spain to the UK and a variety of French colonial possessions were given to Britain.

          In 1715 the Bourbon king Philip V of Spain abolished the constitutions of Kingdom of Valencia and Principality of Catalonia with the Decreto de Nueva Planta.


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